100 Military Leaders Who Changed the World - PDF Free Download (2024)

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Che

Who Changed the world Samuel Willard Crompton

World Almanac® Library

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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Crompton, Samuel Willard. 100 military leaders who changed the world cm.

p.

who changed

(People

/

Samuel Willard Crompcon.

the world)

Includes index.

Summary:

Brief biographies of 100

through military

force, strategy,

men and women who attained greatness ability to command, relating the often

and/or the

harsh conditions and incredible odds each faced.

ISBN 0-8368-5470-5 1.

Generals

literature.

Generals.

[1.

One hundred

Title:

I.

Juvenile literature.

Military history

3.

literature.

Samuel Willard. IV.

bdg.)

(lib.

— Biography—

3.

4.

— Biography— —

Naval history

Military history.

leaders

II.

Juvenile

^Juvenile

Naval

4.

who changed the world. who shaped world history.

military leaders

00 military

1

^Juvenile literature.

Admirals.

2.

Admirals

2.

history.]

Crompton,

III.

Title.

Series.

U51.C743

2003

355'.0092'2—dc21

2002034335

(B)

This North American edition

published

first

in

2003 by

World Almanac® Library 330 West Olive Milwaukee,

WI

Street, Suite

This U.S. edition Books.

First

San Mateo,

©

2003 by World Almanac® Library Original edition © 1999 by Bluewood A Division of The Siyeh Group, Inc., P.O. Box 689,

published by Bluewood Books,

CA

94401.

Editors: Lee A. Schoenbart

Copy

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100

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Bluewood Archives:

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104; National Archives: 78, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 88, 92, 93, 98, 99, 101, 105, 53, 72;

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© Stapleton Collection/CORBIS:

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Printed in the United States of America

1

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 07 06 05 04 03

About the Author: Samuel Willard Crompton College. Crompton's other books include; Battles

and

teaches

American and European history

at

Holyoke Community

100 Americans Who Shaped American History (Bluewood, 1998), 100

That Shaped World History (Bluewood, 1997), 100 Wars That Shaped World History {h\uewood, 1997), Cods

Goddesses of Classical Mythology (Barnes and Noble, 1998)

Crompton

holds degrees from

Massachusetts.

Framingham

State College

and Presidents of the United States (Smithmark,

and Duke

University.

He grew up and

lives in

1992).

western

Q

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Robert Guiscard and Sichelgaita

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280-337)

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26. William

370-410)

(c.

HUN

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041

Alaric the

(c.

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16

12.

(c.

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R4Q R001

B.C.)

CONSTANTINE THE GREAT

(c.

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Caesar

(100^4

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PoMPEY THE Great

9.

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B.C.)

233-183

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PuBLius Cornelius Scipio (c.

ill,

UADICC \^A DT"!:

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14

247-183

LhU

(C-.9,C)

Hannibal (c.

8.

r

S/^S'l

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IS.HAi.IU

20

cx

32

iUzj— lUvUj

the Conqueror

33

1027-1087)

27. "El Cid" (RoDRiGO Dl^z de Vivar)3^

406-453)

(c.

21

28.

466-511)

1043-1099)

Saladin (1

35

137-1193)

15. 16.

9. 3. 4. 5.

7.

8.

10.

11.

12.

13.

20.

17.

14.

18.

19.

ft

Y Y y Y

my nil »ii >

600

B.C.

A.D.

750

TABLE OF CONTENTS 29.

Richard the Lion-Hearted 36

30.

33.

43.

38

Khan

39

45.

40

I

46.

Robert Bruce

(c.

Edward the Black Prince 43

(c.

40.

49.

44

I

50.

45

51.

Arc

46

GusTAVUs Adolphus

58

Cromwell

59

(1599-1658)

the Conqueror

47

53.

Louis

II

de Bourbon

60

(1621-1686)

41. Francisco Pizarro

48

54.

1475-1541)

Sebastien Le Prestre de Vauban 61

(1633-1707)

32-

24. 21.

56

57

Maarten von Tromp

52. Oliver

(1432-1481)

(c.

Albrecht von Wallenstein

(1597-1653)

1412-1431) II,

55

(1594-1632)

1358-1424)

Mehmed

54

(1583-1634)

38. Jan Ziska

39. Joan of

Drake

1539-1596)

48. Maurice of Nassau

42

(1354-1403)

(c.

53

(1567-1625)

Tamerlane

Bayezid

52

Oda Nobunaga

47. Francis

41

(1336-1405) 37.

The Duke of Alva

(1534-1582)

(1330-1376) 36.

51

(1508-1582)

(1274-1329) 35.

the Magnificent

I,

(1494-1566)

(1239-1307) 34.

50

1485-1547)

44. Suleiman

1215-1294)

Edward

HernAn Cort£z (c.

1176-1248)

32. KuBLAi (c.

37

1167-1227)

31. Subotai (c.

Babar 49

(1483-1530)

Genghis Khan (c.

Mohammed

42. Zahiruddin

(1157-1199)

22.

23.

27.

25.

28. 29.

31.

37. 34.

35.

38.

44.

40.

41. 26.

30.

42. 33.

y

y

V

V y

V

36.

39.

43.

ytty|ttttttt|

t

rm ym rm >

A.D.

751

1500

)

TABLE OF CONTENTS 55.

John Churchill

62

68.

56.

Peter the Great

63

69.

(1672-1725) 57.

64

Charles XJI

70.

Frederick the great

66

72.

Wolfe

67

73.

Scott

78

Helmuth von Moltke

79

David Farragut

80

(1801-1870)

Aleksandr Suvorov

68

74. Giuseppe Garjbaldi

81

(1807-1882)

(1729-1800)

George Washington

69

75.

Robert

Lee

E.

82

(1807-1870)

(1732-1799) 63.

77

(1800-1891)

(1727-1759)

62.

SimOn Bolivar

71. Winfield

65

(1722-1792)

61.

76

(1786-1866)

John Burgoyne

60. James

Karl von Clausewitz

(1783-1830)

(1712-1786) 59.

75

(1780-1831

(1682-1718) 58.

Arthur Wellesley (1769-1852)

(1650-1722)

Nathanael Greene

70

76.

Ulysses

S.

Grant

83

(1822-1885)

(1742-1786) 64. ToussAiNT L'Oltverture

77. William T.

71

Sherman

8'

(1820-1891) 65. Lazare Nicolas

Marguerite

72

78.

Carnot (1753-1823) 66.

Horatio Nelson

85

(1824-1863)

73

79.

Geronimo

86

(1829-1909)

(1758-1805) 67.

Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson

Napoleon Bonaparte

74

80.

(1769-1821)

Chief Joseph

87

(1840-1904)

67. 68. 50.

45.

46.

49.

51.

53.

52.

54.

55.

56. 57.

58.

59.

60.

63.

61.

64.

62.

69. 72. 66. 70.

65.

71.

47.

>1»

1501

»» »» >

1800

81.

Paul VON HiNDF.NBURG 88

Chiang Kai-shek

92.

82.

Heihachiro Togo 89

Heinz Guderian

93.

Ferdinand Foch

90

Erwin Rommel

94.

(1851-1929) 84.

Henri Philippe PEtain 91

MaoTse-Tung

95.

John Pershing

96. Georgi

92

Bernard Montgomery

103

93

Vo Nguyen

97.

104

Glap

(1912-)

Douglas MacArthur

94

98. Benjamin O. Davis, Jr. 105

(1912-2002)

(1880-1964) 88. William Halsey, Jr.

95

MosHE Dayan

99.

(1882-1959) 89.

Zhukov

(1896-1974)

(1887-1976) 87.

102

(1893-1976)

(1860-1948) 86.

101

(1891-1944)

(1856-1951) 85.

100

(1888-1954)

(1848-1934) 83.

99

(1887-1975)

(1847-1934)

106

(1915-1981)

IsoRUKU Yamamoto

100. Norman

96

(1884-1943)

Schwarzkopf

107

(1934-)

90.

Chester Nimitz 97

91.

George Patton

TRIVIA QUIZ

(1885-1966)

108

SUGGESTED PROJECTS INDEX 109

98

(1885-1945)

108

89. 90.

97. 74.

73. 75.

91.

76. 77. 78.

80.

81.

82.

83.

85.

86.

88.

94.

98. 96.

99

100.

92.

79.

>i>i

1801

84.

87.

nil

93.

95

ym >

1950

ALPHABETICAL TABLE OF CONTENTS Adolphus, Gustavus,

Foch, Ferdinand

II

(50) AJaric the

Goth

(12)

Alcibiades (3)

Alexander the Great

(6)

Alfred the Great (21) Alva, the Attila the

Duke of (45)

Hun

(13)

Babar, Zahiruddin

19

Garibaldi, Giuseppe (74). ..p. 81

10

Genghis Khan (30)

p.

13

Geronimo

p.

28

Giap,

p.

52

Grant, Ulysses

p.

20

Greene, Nathanael (63)

(79)

Vo Nguyen

Guderian, Heinz (93)

(37)

p.

44

p.

22

Halsey, William,

p.

77

Hannibal

Simon

(70)

Bonaparte, Napoleon (67). p. 74

(97)

(76)

S.

BeUsarius (15) Boh'var,

Petain, Henri Philippe

p.

(58)

49

I

Pershing,

p.

II

p.

Bayezid

90 65

Frederick

Mohammed

(42)

p. p.

(83)

57

p.

p.

91

Peter the Great (56)

p.

63

p.

86

Philip

p.

12

p.

48

p.

16

p.

i6

104

p.

p. p.

II

(5)

Pizarro, Francisco

Pompey

70

Richard the Lion-Hearted

the Great (9)

(29)

Rommel, Erwin

(94)

32

Saladin (28)

95

Schwarzkopf Norman

p.

14

Hindenburg, Paul von

(100)

p.

30 41

Burgoyne, John (59)

p.

66

p.

85

Sherman, William

p.

77

Joseph, Chief (80)

p.

87

Sichelgaita

p.

31

Joan of Arc (39)

p.

46

...p.

23

Subotai (31)

p.

39

Suleiman

p.

82

(44)

Caesar, Julius

Canute

II

(10)

(24)

p.

Khalid ibn al-Walid (16)

Carnot, Lazare Nicolas

Khan

p.

72

Kublai

Charlemagne (20)

p.

27

Lee, Robert E.

Charles XII (57)

p.

64

L'Ouverture, Toussaint

p.

99

Marguerite (65)

Chiang Kai-shek

(92)

88

(32)

(75)

60

Tariq ibn Ziyad (17)

p.

24

Themistocles

94

Togo, Heihachiro (82)

p.

89

102

Tromp, Maarten (51)

p.

58

p.

61

p.

56

..p.

(1 l)p.

18

MaoTse-Tung

p.

p.

50

Martel, Charles (19)

p.

26

p.

59

Maurice of Nassau (48)

p.

55

(1)

Davis, Benjamin O.,

p.

8

(98)

Dayan, Moshe (99)

p.

105

p.

106

Drake, Francis (47)

p.

54

Edward

p.

40

I

(33)

Edward the Black Prince (35)

p.

42

"El Cid" (Rodrigo Diaz

de Vivar) (27) Farragut,

David (73)

de Bourbon (53)

Mehmed

II,

(95)

the

Conqueror

(40)

Jr.

51

25

MacArthur, Douglas (87)

Cyrus the Great

p.

..p.

21

Cromwell, Oliver (52)

the Magnificent

the Isaurian (18). ..p.

Clevis of the Franks (14)

(43)

I,

68

Leo

Hernan

32

JS

43

Louis

Cortez,

p. p.

Guiscard (25)

p.

76

Constantine the Great

84

Tamerlane (36)

62

...p.

T. (77). .p.

and Robert

71

p.

p.

II

7S

p.

(64)

III,

15

p.

Suvorov, Aleksandr (61)

Clausewitz, Karl von (69). .p.

Churchill, John (55)

p.

(8)

Scott, Winfield (71)

"Stonewall"

(78)

107

p.

p.

Thomas

35

Scipio, Publius Cornelius

Bruce, Robert (34)

(81)

101

p.

p.

Brian Boru (23)

Jackson,

(41)

83

100

p.

(84)

p.

(7)

92

37

(88).. ..p.

Sichelgaita (25)

p.

p.

Guiscard, Robert and

Jr.

John (85)

(2)

Vauban, Sebastien

p.

9

le

Prestre de (54)

Wallenstein, Albrecht von

p.

47

Moltke, Helmuth von

(49)

Washington, George (62)

..p.

69

p.

75

p.

79

p.

93

p.

33

Nelson, Horatio (66)

p.

73

Wolfe, James (60)

p.

67

Nimitz, Chester (90)

p.

97

Xenophon

p.

Oda Nobunaga

p.

53

Yamamoto, Isoruku

(72)

Montgomery, Bernard (86)

(46)

Wellesley, Arthur (68)

William the Conqueror (26)

(4)

p.

34

Otto the Great (22)

p.

29

Ziska, Jan (38)

p.

80

Patton, George (91)

p.

98

Zhukov, Georgi (96)

7

11

(89). ...p.

96

p.

45

p.

103

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Cyrus the Great 600-530

(c.

One

of

was born

southern part of present-day

Many stories

Iran.

but

parentage,

have circulated regarding his

most

seems

it

was the son and grandson of

known

a region

the throne of

of

tribes in

Cyrus

greatest warlords,

history's

in the

B.C.)

he

likely

men who

ruled

Anshan. Cyrus inherited

as

Anshan and gathered the other

Persis, located in the

modern-day

Iran.

He

province of Fars

led a revolt against his

overlord, Astyages, king ol the Medes. Joined

by forces from the

city

of Babylon, Cyrus and

his Persian warriors defeated the

Medes

Cyrus entered the Median

B.C.

550

in

capital

of

Ecbatana (modern-day Hamadan) and took the throne as king of Persia.

Two went

years after entering Ecbatana,

Cyrus

war against Croesus, the king of Lydia,

to

modern-day Turkey. Lydia had established

in

the

first

known

was reputed

coinage system, and Croesus be fabulously wealthy (the

to

expression "rich as Croesus" comes from this

Lydian king). Croesus consulted the Greek

which prophesied

oracle at Delphi,

attacked the Persians, a great empire

Cyrus the Great

that if he

would be empire stretching from the Indus River to

destroyed. Never thinking that the empire the oracle spoke of

might well be

fought Cyrus.

The

made Croesus

a prisoner

dom 546

of Lydia and B.C., the

own, Croesus

the

In

was prevented from marching eastward by

cities

on the

attacks

Instead

eastern coast

taking

his

hard-riding

turned

Persian

Susa

all

way to the Indus River and the foothills of the Hindu Kush Mountains. He returned to Ecbatana and moved against the city of the

Babylon, which had

of

his

control.

captured

the

Persian

king

now

Persepolis

The riders who

stood

a

world

state

Persian cities of at

the

center

were connected

of the empire.

lands

by express

traveled

Cyrus was buried

remained independent

C^yrus

and

The

on well-paved

roads to carry news throughout the empire.

simple tomb.

city,

ending the Babylonian dynasty.

The

where he was defeated

lasted long after his death.

eastward,

warriors

Cyrus

killed.

Cyrus the Great's concept of

Cyrus

his empire.

of marching toward Egypt,

tribes in central Asia,

and

his empire. B.C.,

on the northern section of

went north and met the nomadic Massagetai

allowing the Persian king to further

545

Cyrus

and took the king-

wealth for himself In

against the Persians. Cyrus swiftly captured the

expand

of Asia Minor.

then cast an eager eye toward Egypt, but he

of Asia Minor (present-day Turkey) revolted

cities,

shores

eastern

Persians prevailed. Cyrus

all its

Ionian

his

benevolent the Persians.

controlled a vast

8

A

at

Pasargadae

fierce warrior

ruler,

in a relatively

but a wise and

he was called "Father" by

ZThemistocles (c.

.

524-459

B.C.)

Heroic patriot or double-dealing scoundrel?

The debate continues about Themistocles

A

(thehm-is-TOE-cleez).

of Athens,

native

Themistocles rose to become a champion of the lower classes in this Greek

493 and

archon, or magistrate,

B.C.,

at

2 miles (3.2

km) from

the

main

of ten generals

Athenians

the

at

where the

B.C.),

was defeated on

command

at

cal

483

led his states

est

had no choice but

to flee Athens. Themistocles

ban-

political

many of his

He

Magnesia-on-the-Meadows

politi-

Persia

convinced

Xerxes

another war.

his

later

who had changed

life,

Persians, even while

The

there. fled. les

I

fleet

entered to their

no one was

population had

Trusting Themistoc-

(who trusted

in the ora-

cle at Delphi), the

Athen-

ians fled to nearby towns,

while

Athenian

sailors

stood ready with their at the

fleet

Bay of Salamis. Battle of Salamis

Themistocles covinced

9

It

was

he led the Athenian forces

against them.

the Battle of Thermopylae,

surprise that

his bases.

discovered he sent information to the

winning

troops

sides in the last years

had always covered

"King of Kings," led an

enormous army and

to rule.

Themistocles, the Athenian politician and

he persuaded the

B.C.,

(ZERKS-eez), the Persian

Athens and found

he was tried

Minor and presented himself to Artaxerxes, the new Persian king. He became a trusted advisor, and the Persian leader gave him the town of

leader in Athens.

the Athenians to cooperate with other Greek

Xerxes's

B.C.,

Marathon, Themistocles

city-states in preparation for

to Greece. After

city-

crossed the Aegean Sea to Ephesus in Asia

again, Themistocles

B.C.,

Greek

who had been

of

480

in retreat, leaving the

hero in Greece, but in 476

general

In

army

For some time, Themistocles was the great-

the

two hundred warships. Believing that strike

(which

with their freedom.

Athenians to build between one hundred and

would

Lacking supplies

fleet.

he was nonetheless ostracized in 473 B.C. and

to rid the city of

In

rivals.

Persian

won an

ended with the ruin ol

major threat from Persia

used the process of ostracism

the

forti-

led

Following the lead

could only be brought in by ship), Xerxes soon

rocky beach.

a

became the dominant ishment

all-day naval battle that

of Athens.

who

threat.

bay,

ships

for cooperating with the Persians. Acquitted,

After the death ol Miltiades, first in

city

of a

narrow

Persian

of Marathon (490

Battle

first

less

in the

number of

of Themistocles, the Greeks fought and

in the

once began

He was one

would pose

he became an

fying Piraeus, a naval port that was located

Athenians to fight larger

which came

democracy

close to developing a true sixth century B.C. In

city,

his fellow

where the

Alcibiades 450-404

(c.

3,

Athens,

nephew

and

Pericles

was born

long-time

statesman

the Spartan king allowed Alcibiades to remain.

of the great

Alcibiades was soon allowed to present himself

(al-sih-BY-ah-dees)

Alcibiades in

B.C.)

to

great

disciple

a

briefly

the

philosopher Socrates, whose admonitions to

harmony were apparently young man. Alcibiades became

tary skill

wasted on the

are

for disregarding

with

serving

After

any moral code. distinction

Alcibiades

in

was elected one of the ten generals of Athens B.C.

Pericles

Peloponnesian

was

in

its

was

and

dead,

War between Athens and

Still, traitors

and

distrust,

the situation worse by seduc-

Sparta and crossed the Aegean Sea to Asia

Alcibiades

420

with

ing the king's wife. Discovered, he fled from

Batde of Delium

B.C.),

made

valued only mili-

truth.

the

life at

424

viewed

offer,

the

Athenian army (he saved Socrates' in

who

and who spoke the

generally

by the

Intrigued

to the king as a Spartan

seek balance and

known

enemies.

in

Minor,

the

Sparta

twelfth year. In favor of continuing

where he offered

services

his

to

Tissaphernes, the Persian satrap, or governor. Still

made a

hoping to return

to Athens, Alcibiades

overtures that were rejected at

first.

Then

group of Athenian generals gave him com-

the war, Alcibiades convinced his fellow mili-

mand

tary leaders to send a large fleet to attack the

of Samos. Departing quickly from the Persian

city

of Syracuse,

Alcibiades was

a

Spartan

named one of

manders. The night before ever,

in

Sicily.

fleet's

comhow-

ally

the

his departure,

images of the god Hermes were mutilat-

ed. His political

enemies persuaded the gov-

court, Alcibiades took eral victories,

and

to Sparta,

sailed to Argos.

where he offered

based on the island

command and won

sev-

notably at Cyzicus, where sixty

B.C.,

Alcibiades returned to Athens and

was welcomed Alcibiades

as a hero.

went into voluntary

by

end

of

exile

in

made perma-

Thrace, and the exile was soon the

nent

then marched

won

a

his services to his

B.C.,

and the Spartan commander, Lysander,

Alerted to this danger, Alcibiades fleet

fleet

Spartan ships were destroyed or captured. In

407

ernment that Alcibiades was responsible, and an escort was sent to bring him home.

of an Athenian

He

left

the

the

Sparta

war.

complete victory over Athens in 404

demanded of

the

turned coat a times.

Asia

surrender

man who had

the

of three

total

Alcibiades

to

fled

where

Minor,

the

Persian satrap Pharnabazus

agreed to allow him safe

Pressured

residence.

by

Pharnabazus

Lysander,

had Alcibiades

slain

group of armed

men

by

a

at his

residence in Phrygia in the

same

year.

persuasive,

Death of Alcibiades

Handsome,

and unscrupu-

lous,

Alcibiades

brought

down by

his

double-dealing ways.

10

was

own

4xeiioplion 430-355

(c.

.

A

and

soldier

B.C.)

an

author,

Xenophon (ZEN-uh-ton) was born

He grew up

in Athens.

in the

tumult

of the Peloponnesian War, and by the time of Athens's defeat in 404

was disillusioned by the

home

In 401

city.

he

B.C.,

politics

of his

he accepted

B.C.,

an offer to join the army oi Cyrus the

Younger

424-401),

(c.

who

prince

Persian

a

recruited thirteen thou-

sand Greek mercenaries to fight with

him

against his older brother,

Artaxerxes

II

These

Persian-Greek

marched from Lydia Babylonia,

to

Tigris

now

troops

in Asia

land

a

and Euphrates

rivers in

serious opposition until he

miles (97

what

is

met

Xenophon

his

army on the plain at Cunaxa, 60 km) north of Babylon. The battle

went well Cyrus led

and was

Minor

between the

Cyrus the Younger met no

Iraq.

brother's

King

(ART-ah-ZERKS-eez).

for the Greco-Persian forces until

charge against his brother

a cavalry killed.

Defeated and leaderless, the

Greek mercenaries retreated from the

field to

Xenophon stepped

into

Why

yield to the

mercy of the enemy,

they had a chance to

if

way back

to Greece?

Becoming

the mercenaries, he guided ilous retreat

of hostile involved

know

make

the leader of

them on

their per-

The eight-month march The mercenaries did not

territory.

perils.

the terrain, and they were the

group of Greeks to

Xenophon

their

through 1,300 miles (2,092 km)

many

sea!

The

sea!"

They had

reached Chrysopolis on the Sea of Marmara,

from Byzantium. To

directly across

this day,

the leadership and tactics of

Xenophon have

been used

he

travel so

On

debate and

the

urged his fellow soldiers not to consider sur-

he asked,

"The

out

called

as a

model. In

fact,

is

considered

the inventor of the pattern of strategic retreat.

consider their options.

render.

concluded when the vanguard of the Greeks

first

large

deep into Asia.

led the Greeks past the ruins of

that

his return to Greece,

in its

war with the Persian Minor.

Asia

Xenophon was Agesilaus

II

He

learned

therefore

army (399-394

served with the Spartan

of

Xenophon

Athens had banished him.

Returning an

given

B.C.)

satrap (governor)

to

estate

Greece,

by

King

of Sparta.

During the next twenty

years,

wrote fourteen works. His best

Xenophon known are

Hellenika (seven volumes), a history of Greece

with a pro-Spartan (seven volumes)

bias,

and

Cyrus' Anabasis

and Cyrus Education

(eight

Nineveh, which had been the capital of the

volumes), an idealized biography of Cyrus the

Assyrian empire. Although only two hundred

Great (see no.

years

and

his

men had

founder of the Persian

He moved

its

and

his

Athenian citizenship was restored

The arduous journey was

369

B.C.

city's fall,

Xenophon

never heard of the city or

once-great people.

1),

empire.

had passed since the

11

to

Corinth in 371

B.C.,

in

Philip (382-336

5.

A

II

B.C.)

younger son of King Amyntas

III,

Philip did not expect to attain the throne of

Macedonia. Sent

an early age

at

as a hostage to

the Greek city-state of Thebes, Philip observed

the

firsthand

greatest

and following the death of

B.C.,

older brother, Perdiccas

of Macedonia in

of

Greek general was returned to Macedonia

of the time. Philip

by 359

deployments

military

Epaminondas, the

III,

own

his

his

he became king

right.

Philip turned the hard-riding, hard-drink-

ing Macedonians into a formidable fighting force.

He

lanx,

a

arrayed his farmer-soldiers in a pharectangular

tight,

battle

formation.

Soldiers in front held out long pikes, while soldiers within the

phalanx held shields over their

heads to protect the phalanx from arrows.

cavalry

elite

To

formation, he added a corps of

this tank-like

known

as the

horsem*n were used

Companions. These

to terrify

and overwhelm

Adding technology to the battlePhilip also employed catapults and siege

the enemy. field,

towers. Philip fought side by side with his

and he

lost his right

against the

He

made

diplomacy

was

(358

this goal

B.C.)

in

secure.

by defeating the

what

later

II

being shot in the right eye

Athenian and Theban forces on the

Chaeronea

as well as war, Philip

sure that his throne

accomplished

Illyrians

eye in an early encounter

Greek republic of Methone.

Skillful in first

Philip

men,

became

in Boeotia. Prince

charge of the

Companions

Macedonia. Philip

for

left

that

won

the day

garrisons in both

Thebes and Corinth, but he declined in

field at

Alexander led a

to

do

so

Athens. Master of northern Greece, Philip

Yugoslavia and by taking the towns on the east

forced

coast of Macedonia. After expanding eastward

join the League of Corinth, with himself as

into Thrace, Philip turned south a "sacred war" against Thessaly.

and declared

The only

all

the leader.

thing

Philip

sacred to Philip, however, was the gaining of

province

territory

and

Athenian

prestige.

Seeing the menace Macedonia posed

Greek freedom, Demosthenes tried

the

Athenian

to

orator

feverishly to stir public sen-

timent against Philip, but his efforts came too late.

340

Athens B.C.

declared

war on

Philip

338

B.C., Philip

and

his eighteen-

year-old son Alexander (see no. 6)

who saw

met the

intended

to

of

Minor

Asia

and

orator

attack

the

Persian

The

(Turkey).

teacher

in Philip the leader

Isocrates,

Greece needed,

Family circ*mstances,

supported the plan.

however, prevented Philip from carrying out the plan.

The

in

without having made adequate prepa-

rations. In

the Greek city-states except Sparta to

greatest soldier of his

state-builder,

son,

Alexander,

his father's

12

Philip

day and

a true

was succeeded by

who

ultimately

formidable achievements.

his

surpassed

Alexander the Great

6

(356-323

.

Born the son

in

B.C.)

Macedonia, Alexander was

Pella,

of King Philip

hands of one of his own generals.

and

Alexander

then

devised

plan

(see

no.

5)

Olympias, an Epirean princess.

He

studied

"hom*onoia," bringing Macedonians, Greeks,

under the Greek philosopher Aristotle and

and Persians together into one ethnic group. In

from an

early age

II

mind Alexander came

showed both

and a

talent for leadership.

of age

at the Battle

a keen

of Chaeronea (338

B.C.),

where he led the Macedonian cavalry

in

336

Alexander became king of

field.

Macedonia

the death of his father in

after

B.C.

In the spring of thirty-five

334

B.C.,

Alexander and

thousand battle-hardened troops

crossed the Dardanelles into Asia Minor.

won

his first

Granicus River and proceeded to the

at the

He

engagement against the Persians

The Gordian Knot was

Knot.

knot of

a

thousand of

his soldiers to ten thou-

sand Persian women.

He

brought

his

men

all

and

their elephants

(it

was the

Gedrosian Desert, where to

hunger and

thirst.

Alexander

made

where he died caused

his

by drink.

of

all

Asia.

Alexander simply pulled out

his

sword and cut through the knot that had perplexed countless

men

among

common

Middle

East,

time the

Finally,

lives

capital

at

his vast

his top generals.

were

army of Darius

and the

III,

left

Greek became

much

ol the

and Hellenistic culture became to

the Tigris

rivers.

At the

Battle of Issus (333 B.C.), Alexander used the

mobility of his troops to confuse and defeat the

much

larger Persian army.

Alexander led

his

men

Lebanon and

into

spent seven months reducing the Phoenician city

of Tyre (TY-ree).

He

finally

conquered

that island city by building a causeway of earth

and

stones,

which

He

still exists.

then went to

Egypt, where high priests acclaimed god.

The Macedonian army

marched

into Persia proper,

fought and

won

left

him

as a

Egypt and

where Alexander

a second great battle with

Darius, this time at a site called Arabela (331 B.C.).

Darius escaped from the

field,

sued with a vengeance, and finally

was pur-

fell at

Aristotle

the

13

no

empire was

the "King of Kings"

ruler of the Persian Empire.

lost

Babylon,

Marching south, Alexander met the assembled

in

was probably

language throughout

dominant from Greece Euphrates

before him.

first

Since Alexander

divided the

many

after a fever that

A

man who

Indus

to the

326 B.C., Alexander's Macedonian soldiers demanded he lead them back to Persia. Angry, Alexander led them back by way of the harsh

male heir to succeed him,

legend had developed that the

way

Greeks had faced such animals).

cornel bark tied around the yoke of a chariot.

could untie the knot would become the ruler

the

River and fought a battle against Indian troops

city

of Gordium, where he cut the famous Gordian

for

one-day wedding ceremony, Alexander mar-

ried ten

a

charge that swept the Athenians and Thebans

from the

a

a

and

his pupil

Alexander

and

Hannibal

7

247-183

(c.

B.C.)

Son of Hamilcar Barca, Hannibal was born Phoenician city on the

in Carthage, tlie great

North

coast of

War (264-241

Africa, during the First Punic B.C.). In the war,

Rome

ed Carthage. After

took

Rome

defeat-

Sicily, Sardinia,

and Corsica away from Carthage, Hamilcar

made

Barca

his nine-year-old

Hannibal and establish a

son swear

his eter-

Rome.

nal hatred for

went

his father

new Carthaginian

to Spain to

empire. Following

and then of his brother-

the death of his father

Hannibal became supreme commander

in-law,

Spain and leader of the Barcids (the Barca

in

of a

new

rival,

declared war on Carthage in

218

B.C.,

Nervous about the

family).

Rome

rise

Second Punic War.

starting the

Hannibal led

thousand troops

thirty-five

and a number of elephants over the Pyrenees

He

and Alps.

many of

Hannibal

the elephants and

lost nearly all

his troops to the frigid conditions in

Hasdrubal's head was thrown into his camp.

the Alps, but he recruited Gallic tribespeople to join his attack

on Rome.

Having defeated Carthage

in the First

Punic

War, the Romans were supremely confident. To their astonishment,

Hannibal defeated them

at

the Ticinus River (218 B.C.) and the Trebia

won

River (218 B.C.) and

a major victory at

The

Lake Trasimene

(217

Cannae (216

B.C.)

was Hannibal's masterpiece.

He

lured the

Roman

of

own

his

wings

of

his cavalry

them.

swept around the Fifty

thousand

perished that day.

Roman Scipio

Battle

infantrymen to the center

and trapped

Romans

B.C.).

then caught them completely

lines,

unprepared when

armies led no.

(see

Carthaginian

by Publius Cornelius

meanwhile, conquered

8),

Spain.

Hannibal's

brother

Hasdrubal escaped from Spain with ten thousand

men and

followed

reached northern

Hannibal's

route

and

learned

of

his force his

having

Italy,

over

the

However, Hasdrubal was caught by two armies,

203

In

B.C.,

Carthage

Alps.

Roman

was destroyed. Hannibal

brother's

efforts

only

when

Roman (202

had

to

the

army, led by Scipio.

B.C.)

showed

successftilly

that Scipio

Battle of Zama

and the Romans style

of war-

was Hannibal and the

it

who were caught in Roman infantry and cavalry.

Carthaginians

between

the

against

city

The

copied Hannibal's

This time

fare.

Hannibal was recalled by

defend

Hannibal escaped from the

field

a

vise

and

per-

suaded the leaders of Carthage to seek peace.

He

retired to private life at the

and served B.C.

His

end of the war

as a magistrate for the ciry in

political foes in

Rome

that

more.

Rome demanded

196

Carthage persuaded

Hannibal was ready to

fight

once

that Carthage surren-

der Hannibal, but he fled to the court of

Antiochus

III

Antiochus to

of Syria. Hannibal encouraged fight

Rome, and

Roman-Syrian War (192-189 complete victory

for

the

the resulting

B.C.)

ended

in

Romans. Hannibal

then fled to the court of Prusias of Bithynia,

where he took poison rather than be taken oner by the Romans.

14

pris-

"

BPublius 233-183

(c.

Cornelius Scipio

B.C.)

came from one of

Scipio (SHEEP-ee-oh)

Rome's most distinguished noble

His

families.

who had the same name, was a Roman who fought against Hannibal (see no.

father,

consul

of the Second

7) in northern Italy at the start

Punic War. Scipio saved his

father's life at the

and

Battle of Ticinus River (218 B.C.)

Roman army

the remnants of the Battle of

Cannae (216

rallied

the

after

light cavalry ries.

leader's battle tacfast,

was the key to Hannibal's victo-

During the Second Punic War, Scipio

suaded the

Roman

Senate to

210

per-

him open

let

and captured

B.C.

Cartagena (New Carthage). Scipio revised

Roman

ditional

equipment of

his

maneuver quickly

He lightened the men and trained them to

in a

way

similar to that of

new

style

Carthaginians in Spain. By 206

had won control of nearly the returned

Scipio

march through

Rome and received the surname "Africanus. Many years later, he would be called Scipio him from

Africanus Major to distinguish

grandson,

Third

who

Punic

destroyed

War

(149-146

B.C.)

homeland

army

to in

the

take

North

brother Lucius Scipio, tory over Antiochus

who won

III

a crushing vic-

of Syria in the

Syrian War. Returning to

Rome,

Roman-

Scipio found

himself and his brother accused of accepting bribes

from Antiochus. The brothers were

acquitted in a

memorable

retired to his villa at

Bitter over the trial

trial,

Liternum

and Scipio

in

Campania.

and angry that

his

his

remains be interred

brought to Rome. The

at

Liternum and not

city's greatest

soldier felt

dishonored by an ungrateful public.

the

205

B.C.

defeated

who brought Roman camp. 202

plains of

but

He

also

Roman and

B.C.

a

Numidian

additional cavalry to the

B.C., Scipio

Zama. The

Scipio

204

earned the good

alliance of Masinissa,

prince

In

took a

two Carthaginian armies

brought against him.

and

Hannibal's

to

He

defused

met Hannibal on

battle

the

phants and catching them Masinissa's cavalry

the

was hard-fought,

power

of

the

Carthaginian lines by stampeding their in

a

vise

ele-

with

behind them. The student

had met the master and won. Scipio

dictated

harsh terms of peace

name

had come under suspicion, Scipio ordered that

Scipio

B.C.,

in

across the Mediterranean in

swiftly

will

war

Africa.

and

was named Scipio Africanus Minor.

After long debate, he obtained the Senate's

permission

his

Carthage in the

entire peninsula.

Rome

to

triumphal

of war-

defeated

consistently

Scipio

tra-

tactics.

the Carthaginians. Using this fare,

a

He went

second front, in Carthaginian Spain. to Spain as proconsul in

a

In 190 B.C., Scipio served as legate to his

he realized that the deployment of

tics,

honored with

B.C.).

Scipio admired Hannibal's success in battle.

Studying the Carthaginian

He was

Carthage, then returned to Rome.

Scipio and Hannibal at to

15

Zama

gPompey the Great 106-48

(c.

B.C.)

remnants of an army of former point of

115-53

Marcus

fact,

it

lion's force

67

Crassus

Licinius

(c.

was Pompey's good

moment when

tune to arrive at the

power

who had

had done most of the work of

B.C.)

defeating the rebels;

In

slaves

under the leadership of partacus. In

rebelled

for-

the rebel-

had been spent.

B.C.,

the Senate gave

at sea in order to deal

Mediterranean,

Pompey supreme

with pirates in the

who commanded

of one

a total

thousand ships and four hundred towns. masterful

Pompey

organizer,

defeated

months by capturing

pirates in four

A

the

their bases.

This great success was followed by

his

cam-

paign in Asia Minor against Mithridates VI,

king

the

of

Pompey

Pontus.

defeated

Mithridates, then besieged and captured the

When

Jewish capital of Jerusalem. to

Rome

the

in

62

greatest

he returned

Pompey was beyond doubt

B.C.,

military

leader

the

in

Mediterranean world.

Pompey formed

a triumvirate, or three-man

government, with Crassus and Julius Caesar. In

54

Pompey It

the Great

was Pompey's misfortune that

his great

military victories were eclipsed by those of Julius Caesar

(see

no.

10).

from the aristocracy In 83

in Rome, Pompey came

B.C.,

he became a

follower of Lucius Cornelius Sulla, a patrician

who became During the

the unofficial dictator of

Social

Crassus was killed on a military expe-

sole consul in

return to

Wars between the

Rome.

followers

52

Rome

B.C.,

Pompey became

and he ordered Caesar

without

his

port

of

Dyrrhachium (modern-day Durres,

The two

Albania) and then pursued his foe.

Pompey won

armies clashed again at Pharsalus in 48

and then

crossed to Sicily and North Africa, where he

defeated

Marian

forces.

On

his

return

to

Rome, Pompey was honored with a triumph and awarded the title of Magnus (Great). Following

Roman

Sulla's

Senate sent

death

in

Pompey

78 to

Italy.

Pompey fled to Greece to assemble his forces there. The stage was set for a climactic showdown between the two greatest generals of the day. Pompey rebuffed Caesar's troops at the

of Sulla and those of Caius (KAI-us) Marius, several victories in Italy

to

army.

Caesar refused and instead invaded

Born

the son of Pompeius Strabo,

B.C.,

dition against the Parthians.

Pompey, who had the

larger army,

B.c:.

gambled

everything on a massive cavalry attack against Caesar's right flank.

When

Caesar's troops, backed by

on horseback,

the assault failed,

German mercenar-

scattered

Pompey's

forces.

B.C.,

the

ies

Spain.

He

Pompey escaped from Greece and went

to

fought and defeated Marian rebels there, and

Egypt, where he was treacherously murdered

he returned to

by followers of King Ptolemy XII 1.

Italy just in

time to defeat the

16

Caesar

Julius

n

1

lU. (100-44

B.C.)

Possibly the greatest military all

Born into an ancient Caesar was nonetheless

commander

on

time, Julius Caesar thrived

patrician

affiliated

oi

war. family,

with the ple-

beian (commoner) followers of Caius (KAI-us)

Marius

and

He

in his youth.

Maximus

rose swiftly in civil

becoming Pontifex

authority,

religious

(high priest) in 63 B.C. His military

unknown until 59 when he obtained he proconsulship of

however, was virtually

skill,

B.C.,

Cisalpine Gaul (the southern part of modern-

day France). astonished

quickly

Caesar

He conducted

ents.

who

those

thought they had known the extent of

his tal-

campaign (58

a

B.C.)

against the Helvetii in present-day Switzerland

and nearly annihilated the

some of

German

repel

Asked by

tribe.

the chieftains of southern Gaul to

Caesar

invaders,

against Ariovistus

and destroyed

marched

his army, pur-

suing the survivors to the Rhine River. Having involved himself in Gaul, Caesar slowly began to constrict the area of free

mous

circular vise grip.

the Beglai (in

52

first

B.C.,

in

an enor-

Roman

sailed

Said to have

where he carried

invasion of that land.

By

Caesar had most of Gaul within his

That same

Julius Caesar

against

modern-day Belgium) and

across the channel to Britain,

out the

Gaul

He campaigned

the Arverni

wept

at the sight.

Caesar then joined forces with the Egyptian princess,

Cleopatra,

and they defeated her

on the throne of

brother. Leaving Cleopatra

chief,

Egypt, Caesar went to Asia Minor, where he

Vercingetorix, organized a tribal confederacy

defeated Pharnaces, the son of Mithridates of

and

Pontus, in five days. Caesar then stated the

grasp.

carried

year,

out a massive war against the

Romans. Caesar escaped from spots before he

tight

several

ended the war and captured

now-famous words, came,

Vercingetorix at the Siege of Alesia.

Summoned Pompey in

his

(see no. 9),

January 49

his army.

by

B.C.,

Pompey

former

Caesar returned to at the

fled to Greece,

pursued him, and in 48 crushing victory over

B.C.,

Pompey

ally,

Rome

head of

where Caesar

Caesar

won

at the Battle

a

of

Pharsalus. Caesar pursued his foe to Egypt,

where the followers of King Ptolemy XIII presented

him with

saw,

I

"Veni,

the head of Pompey. Caesar

is

with

Vidi,

Vici," or,

Rome and was greeted He revised the

tremendous acclaim.

Roman

calendar (based

on

the calendar of

Egypt) and reorganized the government.

seemed nearly ready of

"I

conquered."

Caesar returned to

political

but he did so

I

Rome when

to

He

make himself emperor

he was struck

down by

a

group

of assassins on the floor of the Senate in 44

B.C.

The Roman Republic had come to an end, and Caesar's nephew Octavian became the first true emperor of Rome. 17

Free ebooks ==>

nconstantine the Great .

280-337)

(c.

tumult led to a

cal

war by A.D. 308.

civil

Constantine married Fausta, the daughter of a

He

former augusti named Maximian.

had

later

to fight his brother-in-law Maxentius, the son

of Maximian and brother of Fausta, for the throne. Prior to meeting Maxentius, he experi-

enced a vision

which he was told he would

in

conquer under the sign of the Christian

won 312). He

Constantine Bridge (A.D.

Rome

of

cross.

of Milvian

Battle

entered the imperial city

He

triumph.

in

disband the

the

took

care

to

Praetorian Guard, which for

elite

had made and unmade emperors

centuries

before him.

As

ruler of the

Western

Roman

Empire,

Constantine came into conflict with Licinius,

who

Roman

ruled the Eastern

two men

came

finally

won

Constantine

battle

a

near Adrianople

(modern-day Greece) and became

Constantine

The

Empire.

to blows in A.D. 323;

sole ruler

of

the empire.

The man who made to

Rome was

born

became Yugoslavia.

After Constantine

Christianity acceptable

in Naissus in

what

later

Flavius Valerius Aurelius

Roman

ganized the alry troops

became emperor, he

reor-

army, recruiting more cav-

and turning the army into more of

The

Constantinus was the son of Constantius and

a field force than a fortification-based one.

Helena (who

mobile troops he created allowed the empire to

later

became

a

saint

of the

would have otherwise.

Catholic Church). Constantine grew up amid

survive longer than

the turmoil caused by the division of leader-

Constantine also changed the imperial

ship within the

Roman

Empire; there were two

augusti (rulers), each with a caesar (governor)

who

it

capital,

building the city of Constantinople (on the

border of present-day Greece and Turkey).

Roman

Most importantly, Constantine changed

Empires. Since his father was one of the two

imperial policy toward the Christian minority

ruled the Eastern and Western

Caesars,

Constantine was sent

as a

hostage to

the court of the other caesar, Galerius, a practice

meant

to ensure peace.

Galerius's

army.

He

then

escaped

from

Galerius and joined his father in Gaul; the two

went

to Britain to fight the Picts.

While they

were there his father died, and Constantine

was recognized

as a

new

313)

abolished

Christians.

Constantine served ably against the Persians in

caesar.

Galerius accepted Constantine as caesar of the lands north of the Alps, but further politi-

The

within the empire.

the

Edict of Milan (A.D.

persecution

official

of

Constantine presided over the

Council of Nicaea

(A.D.

325) which established

the official Nicaean Creed of the Church;

God

it

declared that

God

the Father,

and the Holy

Spirit

were inseparable from one

another. All Christians this

doctrine

Constantine self, just

18

fully

who

were

failed

labeled

the Son,

to follow

heretics.

accepted Christianity him-

prior to his death.

Goth

Alaric the

n

1

\i,

370-410)

(c.

who

the warlord

Alaric,

captured Rome,

was born on the island of Peuce,

Danube

of the

mouth

at the

River in present-day Romania.

In A.D. 390, he led a group of Visigothic tribes-

people south

Constantinople. Alaric's

at

advance was stopped by

command

the

who was

three days.

destroyed

ravaged

major

the

Temple

the

Demeter.

of

Roman

bribes offered by the Eastern

emperor placated

Alaric,

who

cities

then withdrew.

done

what

to control Illyricum in

so in

390

take,

Roman of

soon

Alaric

since

from which

used

fleet

He

was driven back

to port

Empire, which was centered

Rome.

invaded

Alaric

401 and again

in A.D.

on the Busento River

was repulsed by

killed the slaves

who had

who

forced

A.D.

him

to

retreat to Illyricum.

Stilicho

was murdered

408. Lacking

in A.D.

his skillful leadership, Italy lay

open

invasions. Alaric invaded Italy again laid siege to

tribute his

Rome. Both

troops,

to elect a

to future

and twice

times, he accepted

payments from the

city

and withdrew

although he forced the

puppet emperor

who

then

Romans named

Roman

Alaric

commander-in-chief of the

forces.

This confusing situation was typical

Roman Empire during its last fifty years, Romans and barbarians commingled

of the as

throughout the empire. In A.D. 410, the a surprise attack

this betrayal, Alaric

menced

Roman emperor sanctioned

on

Alaric's

camp. Furious by

moved on Rome and com-

his third siege

of the

city.

After three

weeks of inconclusive fighting, treachery ered the city to Alaric.

The

deliv-

Alaric the

Salarian Gate was

19

buried

Goth

His

him

no one would find and desecrate the

402-403. Both times he

Stilicho,

his

at a secret location

in southern Italy.

Western

in

more

died suddenly, just months after the assault

on Rome, and was buried

in the city

Italy

power

by a major storm.

Illyricum

to harass the

for

B.C.

Yugoslavia. This concession proved to be a mis-

as a base

itself in

marched south from Rome. He want-

became

later

to

people were

ed to move his tribe to North Africa, but

that

him

many

than eight hundred years, since the Gauls had

militum (master ok the soldiers) and allowed

title

for

news of this attack spread

and grandeur, had not been taken

men

gave Alaric the

city,

monuments

stunned. Rome, which had held

of magister

The emperor

When

other parts of the empire,

Alaric

Greece in A.D. 395. His

Alaric attacked

Only

troops under

ravaging the buildings and

tribe.

Gothic soldiers

and

Roman

of Flavins Stilicho,

from the Vandal

Roman

Eastern

the

against

Empire, centered

opened, and the Goths poured into the

so

grave.

1 I

n

AtCila

J.

(c.

No as

406-453)

name

military

much

the Hun

Hun. The Huns were

the

up

conjures

sheer terror as that of Attila a

waHike,

nomadic people from Central Asia

who

swept into the Black Sea and

Danube River regions around A.D. 370. The violent arrival of the Huns displaced many of the Visigothic and Ostrogothic were

tribespeople,

who

Rome

than

of a threat to

less

the Huns.

and

In A.D. 433, Attila er

his broth-

Bleda jointly inherited leadership

of the

from

tribe

their uncle.

The

Huns, who had already experienced were receiving an annual

success,

tribute

payment of seven hundred

Attila battles the Visigoths

pounds of gold from the Eastern

Roman Empire Attila

Roman

at first

with cementing his

over the area around

control

Then he turned

and Alan tribespeople. In A.D. 451, he

Constantinople.

in

was occupied

the

Danube.

his attention to the Eastern

Empire.

Attila

invasion

of the

eastern

many

Balkan provinces in A.D. 441. Because

Roman

the

forces

soldiers

were away

advanced rapidly and

won

in Sicily,

of

the

at

Theodoric was

Huns and

pillaged

several

cities

and seemed poised

twenty-one hundred pounds of gold and with-

itself

when

killed

to the

Danube.

He had

Bleda

his brother

around A.D. 445 and became

sole leader

of the Hunnish people.

The Huns A.D. in

a

447.

led

to his

the

offensive

mounted

and went

all

in

troops

campaign that was stopped only

Thermopylae

at

in Greece. Attila then turned east

the

way

to Constantinople,

he was halted. Even the ferocity of

from Pope Leo

The

I.

march and, with question

to

Italy.

Italian

march on Rome

substance of their con-

an indis-

it is

Attila to

men

do

the

Western

Roman

The

great

Pope Leo persuade

or did the lack of food for his

Attila

died in A.D.

453.

Popular legend

claims he burst a blood vessel

wedding

Deprived of

city.

so,

—did

horses convince Attila to retire?

where

his

his army, left Italy.

remains

the great walls of the

attack

losses.

northern

versation remains a mystery, but

of

to

heavy

Attila received a diplomatic visit

could not overwhelm the Romans, safe behind

Deciding

King

putable feet that afterward, Attila ceased his

returned

Attila

armies

of Chalons.

Battle

the emperor. Attila raised the annual tribute to

drew

The two

killed in the fighting, but the

their allies suffered

The Huns

and

general Aetius

In A.D. 452, Attila invaded northern

he

concessions from

Roman

by

led

led

where they clashed with

into Gaul,

Visigothic king Theodoric.

collided

an

led

them west

his

to the

his

leadership, the

into smaller groups

on the night

Gothic maiden, Hilda.

Huns broke

and never regained the

Empire, Attila raised an enormous army com-

prominence they had held luidcr

posed of Huns, Ostrogoths, Gepids, Heruli,

terror

20

of the western world.

Attila,

the

Clovis of the nranks

H

466-511)

(c.

.

Roman Gaul

disintegrated into sets of small

aged him to make war on the Ostrogothic

barbarian kingdoms around A.D. 400, but one

kingdom of

man

Clovis did just that, but his campaign (a.d.

reunited them, a Gaulish leader

Clovis of the Franks. Little

is

named

known of Clovis's

youth. His father was Childeric, leader of the

Clovis wanted to expand his tribal lands. First,

turned

he

and

east

tribe in A.D.

south and

married Clotilda,

brothers

The

who were

defeated

the

491. Then, he looked

Thuringian

niece

of two

of Burgundy.

joint kings

marriage had an unexpected effect because

Clotilda was a Christian. Slowly, she

He

worked

to

by King Theodoric.

led

509-510) yielded him expansion of his

Franks in northeastern Gaul. Childeric

Salic

died in A.D. 481, and Clovis took his position.

Italy,

Clovis died in Paris 5

1

1

to his ceaseless efforts. ever,

glory and

on November 27,

At that time, Gaul was

.

the

little

no

territory.

A.D.

due

His achievement, how-

was soon blunted;

kingdom amongst

largely united,

his four sons

divided

themselves. Clovis

three important legacies to the future

left

kingdom

of France: he created the Merovingian dynasty,

which

lasted

imtil

751;

A.D.

Orthodox Christianity the

he

made

official religion

of

his people;

and he created an

alliance with the

baptized as Christians, but held off himself

papacy

Rome

outlast even his

until A.D. 496. In that year, Clovis fought the

own

convert Clovis.

Swabian

allowed their children to be

in

tribe

important battle

an

in

that

would

dynasty.

at

Tolbiac. Prior to the battle, Clovis prayed to

the Christian

god and promised he would conwon. Clovis did

vert to Christianity if he

tri-

umph, and he became a Christian. He also required some three thousand of his followers to do the same. After repeatedly hearing the story of the crucifixion of Christ, his feelings were said to

be a combination of barbarian vengeance and Christian pathos.

"Had

valiant Franks," Clovis

I

been present with

was alleged

my

to exclaim,

would have revenged his injuries." Around A.D. 506, Clovis had permanently subdued the Swabians. He then turned his "I

attention south once series

tribes that held

won

more and launched

a

of campaigns against the Visigothic

power

in

southern France.

a major battle against

A.D. 507,

and soon

all

them

He

at Vouille in

of southern Gaul (with

the exception of the region that

is

present-day

Provence) was in his hands. Clovis's victories

attention.

The

brought him widespread Byzantine

Constantinople, Anastasius

honorary

title

of

Roman

I,

emperor

in

him

the

gave

Clovis

consul and encour-

21

15

505-565)

(c.

the greatest soldier of

Belisarius,

the Byzantine Empire, was born in

Germane, what served

in

became Yugoslavia. He the imperial bodyguard

in

Constantinople and developed a

in

Emperor Justinian

lifelong loyalty to

command

was given

Belisarius

Byzantine army Persian War. at

(il-IR-ee-ah),

Ilyria

later

Daras

He

Byzantine-

the

in

I.

of the

defeated the Persians

but was himself

in A.D. 530,

defeated at Calhnicum, Syria, in A.D.

53 1 This defeat was the only outright .

loss

of his

career.

was then recalled

Belisarius

the Nika Revolt

(a.D.

would otherwise have

to

down

Constantinople, where he put

532), which cost Justinian

his throne. In A.D. 533, Justinian sent

Belisarius to series

North Africa

hoped would had

to begin a

of campaigns that both restore lands the

men

empire

Belisarius

lost to the tribes there.

He

conducted

in Africa.

he cleared

sixteen

campaign thousand

King

brought

Constantinople

Gelimer

to

by

this

as a prisoner. Thrilled

success, Justinian sent his

trusted soldier to

Commanding

fight in Sicily

and

Italy.

eight thousand

men,

Belisarius recovered Sicily

and southern

Italy.

only

His greatest single success

came in A.D. 536, when he entered the city of Rome. The greatest city of the ancient world had fallen to numerous attacks since A.D. 410, but Belisarius had

now

now

reclaimed

it.

A new era

appeared to be dawning, one in which the

Eastern and Western

Roman Empires would

Belisarius

army.

He

until A.D.

Belisarius

was

recalled

and quickly sent eastward the Persians.

Minor Italy.

in A.D.

On

He

fight

against

repulsed their attack

on Asia

in

A.D.

to

542 and was transferred again

this, his

second mission to the

peninsula, Belisarius

and

capital.

Constantinople

to

made only slow

548 he asked

to be

to

Italian

progress,

recalled to

Constantinople. Belisarius repel

the

came out

Bulgar

Constantinople

tribe,

of

retirement

to

which threatened

in A.D. 559. In A.D.

563, he

was accused of conspiring against the emperor.

The

great Byzantine

commander

died, proba-

bly in Constantinople, in A.D. 565. Belisarius'

conquests were soon undone by other inva-

be reunited.

Within weeks of

Ravenna, the Ostrogothic

captured soldiers,

of North Africa of the Vandal

all

and

tribe

a brilliant

With only

his

was besieged by

entry

into

Rome,

a large Ostrogothic

sions, but his tial

achievements had been substan-

during his lifetime.

lasted

the most effective

538, then he marched north ami

Bvzaiuine armies.

withstood the

siege,

which

22

He was, beyond

commander

doubt,

to ever lead the

Khalid ibn al-walid 16

(?-642)

One

of the greatest military leaders to

fol-

low Islam, KJialid ibn al-Walid was actually a the

ot

foe

noble family in

a

Mohammed By

attacks.

prophet

the

of Mohammed's min-

Mecca,

the Battle of Uhud tor the enemies

won

Khalid

of

at the start

Born into

istry.

founder,

religions

Mohammed,

through a

Mohammed

and the Islamic

The

faith.

reasons

turnaround are unknown; he might

for his

have been swept up by the religious fervor

attended

that

Mohammed's Khalid

the

unsuccessful

Mohammed named him

God"

for

retreat.

steadfastness

his

him

in A.D.

to convert other

difficult

having spread Islam

prophet,"

Khalid on

Miisailima.

a

died that same year.

was

He

sent

Bekr.

of the Arab forces. Instead, he

subordinate position in the Syrian

Khalid followed

He

his orders

Khalid

later

served

as

He

his

Medina tomb was consecrated

a

directed the Battle

of Akraba, where Musailima and

most of

his

followers were killed.

Khalid waged a that totally tribes

pitiless

campaign

overwhelmed the

rebel

of Asad, Tamin, Ghatafani,

and Hanifa. By the middle of A.D. 633, the entire Arabian peninsula

of Abu Bekr and Mohammed.

lay at the feet

followers of

Khalid

paused

only

of

governor of part

died in A.D. 642, either in

Homs, and Homs.

to

with

city

of Syria, but never regained his former promi-

quell the followers of Musailima.

vengeance.

The new

removed Khalid from over-

The

Mohammed

rapidly than any-

Homs.

nence.

military mission

a

more

Arabs choose to follow the

Abu

the caliph king,

far

campaign, in which he captured the

in

true successor to

command

was given

power struggle immediately broke out among

"false

when

one expected. His fortunes changed, however,

or

Many

and made rapid

Syria

to

His greatest triumph came in A.D. 634,

died in June A.D. 632, and a

rival leaders.

had few diver-

he entered the venerable city of Damascus,

631, the prophet sent

Bedouin tribespeople on

rapidly before his

he was master of the

against the Byzantine armies there.

all

the Arabian peninsula.

Mohammed

headway

his

the

in

his

further his conquests, Khalid

to

caliph immediately

Khalid entered Mecca in triumph with

Mohammed, and

Ordered

pushed northwest

on

upon

way

year,

To

of scholars

sions or amusem*nts; he lived to fight.

attack

"Sword of

surprise

entire Euphrates area. Khalid

when Abu Bekr

an

the Byzantine frontier in A.D. 630; return,

Within one

of

life.

led

the

today), the Persians gave

years

three

last

(and even

assaults.

of surprise

series

628 or 629, Khalid had and become a fervent believer in

A.D.

switched sides

River to wage war against Persian forces. surprise

the

briefly

View of Damascus

before pushing on to the Euphrates

23

ibn Ziyad

UTnria (?-720)

.

weakness to Tariq. The Berber leader

this

decided to see for himself, and on April 27, A.D. 711, he crossed the Pillars of Hercules

with seven thousand soldiers, nearly

of them

ail

Berber tribespeople rather than Arabs. Tariq

landed near a large rock that jutted out from

named "Jebel The Spanish later

the coast of Spain; the rock was Tariq" ("Tariq's

Rock").

changed those words to "Gibraltar."

The Berber

leader soon discovered that his

scouts had been correct. Visigothic Spain was

divided and offered

little

resistance

the

to

invaders. Tariq rapidly advanced northward,

and on July 19, A.D. 711, he fought the Battle of La Janda against the army of King Roderick, the

last

Christian king of Visigothic Spain.

won

Tariq

the battle

and moved on

to

occupy

the Visigothic capital of Toledo.

Learning of

Musa

his lieutenant's success,

crossed the Pillars ot Hercules with eighteen

thousand troops (most of them Arabs)

He met Tariq

A.D. 712.

his subordinate for

at Talavera

in

June

and scolded

having traveled so

and

far

conquered so much without orders to do

By

this time, the last Visigothic nobles

to the

mountain region of Asturias

in

had

so.

fled

northern

would later become the Christian kingdoms of Leon,

Spain, the area that center of the Castile,

Berbers

The man a

Nothing first

for

is

known of

appeared

a Berber

whom

Gibraltar

probably born

Berber,

in

and former

subordinate by

in

is

named was

North

Africa.

historical

slave

who was

record

as

appointed a

ibn Nusayr, the Arab

governor of Morocco. Tariq was

left in

charge

crossed

the

Arab reconnaissance party

narrow body of water between

North Africa and Spain,

Spain, further expanding the area of the

Musa was summoned by Damascus quest.

to return east

Musa and

and report on the con-

Tariq went to Damascus to-

gether, bringing a large

They reached

the caliph of

Syria

in

convoy of prisoners. February A.D.

715.

Caliph al-Walid lay dying, and his successor

of the city of Tangier. In A.D. 710, an

tral

world under the sway of Islam.

He

Tariq's early years.

the

Musa

and Navarre. Tariq and Musa had

pushed the Christians out of southern and cen-

called the "Pillars

Hercules" by the Greeks and Romans.

of

The

Arabs found Spain to be weak and reported

to either Musa or Tariq The two men ended their

showed no gratitude for their conquests. lives

in

complete

obscurity.

Thc\'

returned to Spain, most ol which

conquered under the banner ol

24

never

the\'

had

Mohammed.

.

the isaurian 18.

675-741

(c.

Destined to be the leader

Leo

who

sustained the

was

born

Byzantine

empire,

Germanicia

in northern Syria to a noble fami-

ly.

He moved

III

with his family to Thrace, on the

Marmara, where

eastern side of the Sea of

Europe and Asia come together. As

man, Leo II

in his

usurper.

assisted Byzantine

a

young

emperor Justinian

also

employed to

his

knowledge of the

Arabs came close to

foes. Still, the

terrain

outmaneuver and confuse victory,

his

and

only the severe winter of A.D. 717—718 pre-

vented the

fall

of the

city.

his fleet departed in the

sands

When Maslama

men and hundreds

of

and

summer, minus thouof

ships,

the Islamic armies lost their best chance to

Not only was

destroy the Byzantine Empire.

the Byzantine empire it

faced an

enormous

from the Arab forces that had recently

threat

Leo

and geography

attempt to recover the throne from a

divided internally, but

conquered most of the Middle

homeland

Leo's

in

Leo with

the

title

his peo-

busy building even stronger defenses

around Constantinople. the Arabs

worried;

in Syria.

rewarded

Justinian

East, including

Leo celebrated the victory and kept ple

city

in

lifetime,

his

He

need not have

not

did

return

to

and the future

the

sieges

of spartharius and sent him on a diplomatic

of Constantinople would

carried

out

mission to the Caucasus Mountains, but the

by Seljuk Turks and Ottoman Turks,

not

mission was frustrating and accomplished

lit-

by Arabs.

Following the death of Justinian

II,

tle.

Leo was made governor of the Anatolikonm province, the largest in Asia

Minor

(present-

day Turkey)

and was crowned emperor

ground,

new

its

own

III

right in

for the Byzantine

leader had a military back-

the

since

empire's

the

in his

was fortunate

It

Empire that

his

in

capital

Arabs city,

descended

on

the empire.

He

The

Arab

Maslama, and army

and

external.

until A.D.

under

802. Although

Constantinople,

city

siege.

year-long

717-718)

was a

fiercely

contest.

fought

Leo battled

back with the use of "Greek

fire,

combination of fur fire

"

to

enemy

a

sul-

and lime that

set

it

Use of "Greek

ships.

25

fire"

lasted

has often been

referred to as the Isaurian dynasty,

fleet

The

both internal

properly be called the Syrian dynasty.

to the area

siege (A.D.

foes,

The dynasty Leo founded

leader,

and placed the

Leo carried

had enabled the Byzantine

empire to withstand many

brought

an enormous

years,

died in A.D. 741, confident

very summer.

that

later

out a campaign against icon worship within

that his victories

Leo led the opposition to Theodosius

A.D. 717.

Famous

be

it

should

Charles Martel 19

(689-741)

Known

"Charles

as

Hammer," Charles Martel for his defeat of the

is

the

famous

Arabs

at

the

Battle of Poitiers in A.D. 732. Martel

was born out of wedlock

to Pepin

mayor of the palace of the Merovingian kingdom of of Heristal,

the Franks (in present-day France).

Following his

was

widow,

who

Martel

father's death,

imprisoned

by

his

father's

did not want any

rivals

to her family line.

Martel

army of

defeated

the

became the

sole

prison,

Austrasians,

Neustrian

723.

A.D.

in

from

escaped

raised an

and

He

army.

mayor of the palace By this time, the Charles Martel at Poitiers

Merovingian dynasty had declined

and

through

intermarriage,

mayor of

the palace conducted the true busi-

ness of the

or the Battle of Tours).

the

kingdom, though he lacked the

title

of king.

After seven days of maneuvering, the Arabs

made

their attack

on the Franks. The

Martel led campaigns against the Frisians,

Saxons (A.D. 719-738), Swabians

and Bavarians

725-728).

(a.d.

A

(A.D. 730),

diplomat

as

all-day

The Arabs could

battle resulted in a standoff

not break the steady lines of Frankish infantry

and

cavalry; the Franks

Arabs quickly enough to

could not pursue the strike a serious

blow

well as fighter, Martel sent Christian mission-

against them. Martel expected the battle to

Led by remarkable

resume the next day, but daybreak found

aries to the defeated tribes.

church leaders such

as St. Boniface, the

Apostle

camp

the enemy's

had

the Arabs

deserted;

of the Germans, the missionaries converted

fled

many of the tribespeople to who converted generally

celebrated in European history as the decisive

Christianity.

accepted

Those

Mattel's

leadership in northern and central France.

The most dramatic moment life

and

career

came

in

A.D.

Mattel's

of

732,

when he

turning point in Europe's wars against the Arabs,

Duke of

Eudes found

Aquitaine, in southern France.

his land

overrun by an invasion of

Arabs from across the Pyrenees. Martel

recruit-

that

had

the

the

collided

(19

at

km) northeast of

(the battle

is

12

miles

Moussais-la-Bataille, the

city

of Poitiers

called either the Battle of Poitiers

became known for

this

European

first

A.D.

"

mounted

Frankish

them south

armies

however, the

chronicles,

overall importance.

then

Hammer

stirrups

The two

Moslem

little

Martel

ed a large army of Prankish warriors and led to seek the Arabs.

hi

Battle of Poitiers figures as a small skirmish

responded to a request for help from Eudes, the

during the night. This victory has been

on

741,

their

having

victory.

"Charles

as

He and

military

force

Martel

halted

Arab expansion

dynasty that eventually was led by his

26

use

to

horses.

died

north of Spain and having founded a

Charlemagne

his

were probably

soldiers

(see no. 20).

in

new

grandson

on

Charlemagne

ZU.

(742-814)

Charlemagne (SHAR-leh-main) was the European warrior and king of the

greatest

Middle Ages. Born

in

Aachen (AH-ken),

in

The

wealthy

present-day Germany, he was a grandson of

Charles Martel (see no.

and the son of

19)

riches

found

crowned Charlemagne "King

III

of the Romans

on Christmas Day,

"

No

768, Pippin gave the northern half of his lands

Roman Empire had and as many people.

Charlemagne and the southern half

to

seized

his

Charlemagne

in A.D. 771.

brother's

lands

and

declared

himself sole king of the Franks. In A.D. 772, he

responded to a I.

call for

Charlemagne took

help from Pope Adrian

his

army

European leader since the controlled as

Lombardy

into

By A.D. 774, Charlemagne Lombards as well as the Franks.

years of his

life

brought Alcuin of York to

and gathered

a

team of other

Italy a

total

of

five

772 and A.D. 778. He also invaded Moslem Spain in A.D. 778. He fought the Moslems to a draw, but on his return home, his rear guard, led by Count Roland, was ambushed and destroyed by Christian Basques at Roncevalles.

Charlemagne's grief over the

of Roland and

his knights

ized in the great epic

was

poem

later

loss

memorial-

"Le Chanson de

Roland' ("The Song of Roland

"),

written in the

The

down

Prankish king put

revolts

in

new type of known as Carolingian minuscule, came into use. The present-day use of capital and lowercase

letters,

punctuation, and word

spaces dates from the Carolingian era.

Charlemagne died

in

A.D.

Tremendously successful during

Charlemagne was unable

Moslem

invaders — Viking, Magyar, and — from wreaking havoc on empire

after his death.

the

He

did, however, leave

and the idea of

united Europe.

both his rule and the Christian Charlemagne fought a number of grueling battles against the Saxons, which faith.

ended when Wittekind, the Saxon

accepted

Christianity

A.D.

in

lead-

785.

Charlemagne defeated the Bavarians along the

Danube retreat tral

River in A.D. 787, but he was forced to

from the Avar lands

in A.D.

791.

A cen-

Asian tribe which had migrated to central

Europe, the Avars had gained great wealth by extorting

payments

emperor

Constantinople.

riors

in

finally defeated

from

the

The

lifetime,

storm of

barbarian

tribes resisted

er,

his

to prevent a

where the Saxon, Bavarian, and Avar

finally

814, leaving a

troubled empire to his son, Louis the Pious.

but the greatest danger lay to the

Brittany,

East,

who

Books and manuscripts were copied; knowl-

a rich cultural heritage

thirteenth century.

He

Aachen

scholars

writing,

A.D.

ten

helped create the "Carolingian Renaissance."

was king of the

between

land

last

his court at

edge of Latin was renewed, and a

Charlemagne invaded

of the

much

to cultural enrichment.

(northeast Italy).

times

A.D. 800.

fall

Charlemagne devoted much of the

Charlemagne's brother Carloman.

Carloman died

Avar capital of

ruler.

Pope Leo

Pippin the Short. Prior to his death in A.D.

to

the

in

Khagan made Charlemagne an incredibly

Byzantine

Prankish war-

Charlemagm

the Avars in A.D. 795.

27

behind a truly

— Alfred the Great

Founder of the English navy, Alfred the Great was born

at

Wantage

in Berkshire, the

The boy

son of King Aethelwulft of Wessex. prince was sent to

Rome,

impressed

this

the

time with his

Alfred's father died,

brothers

came

trip

and

to

855.

eventual offense against the Danes. Believing that the

at the age

Alfred

at a

were a punishment from

raids

He

education.

time of

king himself translated Pastoral Care by Saint

The

and

peace ended in A.D. 876. Guthrum, a

he

Danish

to

brought an army

leader,

Wessex

into

many

of twen-

and

of

towns.

captured

important

its

Alfred

fled

fort

in

small

Somerset

crisis

From

for

a

the

marshes.

he

Danes

the

with small

were close

to

there,

harassed

Danish

whole.

a

invaders

of text

a series

Gregory the Great.

Anglo-Saxon England as

religious

important scholars

from Latin into Anglo-Saxon. The

became

Wessex and

program of

a

recruited

from the continent and began translations

his three older

lives

Danish

God, he embarked on

occupy the throne of

to

ty-four.

for

second

a

Alfred's surprise,

Wessex king

Roman

of

father, in A.D.

had short

all

To

reigns.

glory

He went on

Christianity.

Rome,

by

the "Eternal City," at

met Pope Leo IV and

the age of four; there he

was

4

(849-899)

21

He

raids.

gathered his forces

overrunning the

and emerged from

swamps

land.

Four

the

Anglo-Saxon

king-

a remarkable victory

entire

doms — Mercia,

over

Northumberland, East

and Wessex

Anglia,

remained, but

all

878.

of them

had

Danes under Aethelred's

first

fought the

In

A.D.

Alfred the Great

throne, Alfred fought nine gener-

engagements

against

made an

Danes

to give himself

his

kingdom room

Alfred married Eaihswith, a descendant of

with both Mercia and Wales.

respected

to

He

the

his fol-

peace

relations

built

new

that

had

first

English ships, trying to prepare for an

also built the

A.D.

892,

some 250

England. Alfred met and defeated the Danes

in battle after battle.

His guerrilla warfare

combined with the use

of

his

tac-

ships,

him to gain the upper hand quickly. By A.D. 897, the Danes had fled to East Anglia and Northumberland. allowed

Wessex and strengthened older ones

He

The

Danish ships brought the "great heathen army"

tics,

Mercian kings, and cultivated good

fallen into decay.

Guthrum and

lowers

In

to breathe.

forts in

Wessex.

the

unsatisfactory peace with the

and

were

surrendered

until his death in A.D. 891.

invaders. After losing the Battle of Wilton,

Alfred

the

Danes who

Danes then withdrew from

871, the year he came to the

al

at

A.D.

in

baptized as Christians.

his older brother

leadership.

Danes

Following

battle, those

faced dire peril.

Alfred had

the

Edington

win

to

At the time of

Wessex remained

Alfred's death, in A.D. 899,

free

Anglo-Saxon law and

28

and became the center of tradition.

OCto the Great (912-973)

.

The

Germany,

true imperial ruler of

first

Otto the Great was the son ot King Henry

known

as

Henry

I,

Though Henry

the Fowler.

was called "king of Germany, he was actually "

first

among

German dukes of

equals of the five

Swabia,

and

Bavaria

Saxony,

Franconia,

Lorraine.

Otto married Edgitha, the daughter

of Anglo-Saxon King Edward the Elder, in A.D.

Henry

King

929.

died

He was crowned

father.

936,

A.D.

in

and the dukes elected Otto

succeed his

to

Aix-la-Chapelle,

at

in present-day France.

From ate

the start, Otto was determined to cre-

an empire.

He

Saxony by

ruled

right

of inheritance, and he did away with the inde-

pendent duchy oi Franconia, reserving that

most successful endeavors

area for himself His

came through cooperation with Church.

He

treated

German

the Christian

bishops as

they

it

were counts or dukes, giving them land and titles.

owed

In return, they

allegiance to

and provided him with knights and

Otto

soldiers in

Otto the Great times of war.

Otto fought

maintain

to

German

the

hold on Lorraine, an area that was disputed by the Franks to the west.

He

Triumphant

his attention to the south.

French kingdom of Burgundy under

German

relations with the papacy,

Having secured

his west-

ward to

flank,

Otto turned

to the east

and

started

He gained Wends and

expand the German domains.

dominance

over

the

Slavic

A.D. 962,

Roman Emperor, gone

lands.

Magyar

tribe.

Located

Germany was

in present-day

the

Hungary,

the Magyars were a fierce warrior tribe that had

the

attacked Germany, France, pre-

sent-day Switzerland, and Italy in numerous raids. In A.D.

955, Otto met the Magyars

battle at Lechfeld, near

in

Augsburg, and utterly

defeated them. This victory earned

him

the

2,

had previously

of Charlemagne

(see

John turned against Otto when the German ruler wanted Italian

Otto used

his influence in Italy to

pope deposed and went so

nate his

own

candidate,

far as to

have

nomi-

who became Pope

Leo VIII.

Though he was

migrated from central Asia around A.D. 895.

The Magyars

good

no. 20). Pope

he saw that

greatest foe of Otto's

cultivated

a title that

to the descendants

Bohemia by

The

He

and on February

Pope John XII crowned him Holy

obtained recognition of German sovereignty in A.D. 950.

from

Europe, Otto turned

in central

deep into Prankish territory and brought the

influence (A.D. 940).

raids

the east.

campaign

led a

"Otto the Great" and ended the

title

secure in his lifetime. Otto's

ambitions led to great troubles for his successors,

who would

Italy to

united

fight

German

in

Germany and

empire. Otto died in

973 and was buried

29

both

hold their positions. Having formed a

in

May A.D.

Magdeburg Cathedral.

on Brian Boru Zu.

941-1014)

(c.

Boru was born near

Brian

County

Killaloe, in present-day

Clare,

He came from

Ireland.

the family of Dal Cais, which ruled over a small principality of

same name. His

the

in A.D. 951,

his

Mathgamain

brother

older

father died

and Brian and

began a struggle against the

Danes who held Limerick. For Brian

time,

and only

a

fifteen

men

were completely on their

own,

living as guerrilla warriors

with no

home

The

base.

broth-

ers

gathered their forces, howev-

er,

and defeated the Danes

at

the Batde of Sulcot (a.D. 967).

Mathgamain became king

of

Danish Warriors

Munster. Brian was catapulted to greater responsibility

when

his brother

was seized and murdered

in A.D. 976. Brian defeated the

Battle of Belach Lechta

Danes

at the

and defeated the men

consciously sought

Brian

and Otto the Great

of Desmond. Crowned king of Munster, Brian

Ulster in

more

Mael Sechnaill

high king,

During the next decade, the two kings sent raids against each others' lands. Brian

hundred boats (a.D. 984).

built

He and

on

his

had three

Shannon up to Loch

the River

men

sailed

Ree and ravaged much of the

territory

times,

and

in A.D.

997, Brian and the high king

agreed to meet on the shore of Loch Ree. divided

Ireland

between

them,

with

against

him; the

who

prerogatives of his

title.

Irish

The men of

One ry

of the greatest

battles in Ireland's histo-

was fought on Good

Brian,

who was

remained

Brian

fought

Friday, April 23, 1014.

seventy-three

in his tent, praying,

the

Battle

years

of Clontarf outside of

battle.

Althouhg

killing

some

Brian routed the Danes of

Glen

Mama

(A.D.

999).

at the Battle of

In

1002,

Brian

six

old,

while his soldiers

island.

Dublin and the Leinstermen

1014,

from the Danes.

Dublin. His son, Murchad, led the

resisted his rule.

Leinster

in

and they received promises of assistance

They

Irish

were not

truly exercised the

assuming control of the southern half of the

Both the Danes and many native

a

1005. Brian's very success brought

foes

and Dublin revolted against Brian

of

Meath. Each side attacked the other many

He made

(see no. 22).

used to having a king

II.

the

progression through the island and subdued

was

in a position to challenge the

imitate

to

kingly ways of Alfred the Great (see no. 21)

Brian's troops

Irish in the

won

the day,

thousand of the Leinstermen

and

their allies, Brian

last

moments of

the

Manx

was himself

killed in the

the battle by Brodir, chief of

Vikings. Brian's son was also killed,

replaced Mael Sechnaill as high king, ending

so the Irish victory led to further confusion of

a two-hundred-year family dynasty.

leadership.

30

Canute

M

994-1035)

(c.

.

Who

was

ll

remarkable man? Canute

this

II

in

1027

to

improve

his relations

Canute won the

with the papa-

many of

was from Denmark. His father was Sweyn

cy.

Haroldson, king of Denmark. During a cam-

English subjects by sending the main body of

paign against Anglo-Saxon England, Sweyn

his

and the Danish

died,

new

as their

acclaimed Canute

sailors

though he had an older

king, even

home

army home

thousand

Through

to

of

trust

Denmark; he kept only

"housecarls,

warfare, diplomacy,

three

bodyguards.

or

'

his

and

tact,

he had

country. Finding he

gained a widespread empire that ranged over

could not defeat the Anglo-Saxons, Canute

thousands of miles (km). Canutes fame and

brother back in the

returned to

He

Denmark and

gathered his forces.

returned to England in 1015 and

on

the

Anglo-Saxon

Ethelred

ruler

the

1016 and was replaced

Ethelred died in

Edmund

his son,

won

Canute died of England

in

Ironside.

II

The Danes

illness

even affection

—of

his subjects.

the Battle of Ashingdon in October and

war, King

Canute,

weeks

Edmund later,

acclaimed

was the to

futility ot

bargain with

a

London, and Northumbria,

Edmund

kept Wessex.

died just

and by 1017, Canute had been king

first

accomplish

of

England.

all

since

ruler

the

of

fall

He Rome

this feat.

Canute came older

struck

Compact of Olney. Canute

the

received Mercia,

while

Seeing the

year.

Edmund

fully

into

brother Harold died

power when 1019.

in

his

Now

Canute was king of Denmark and England. To consolidate his gains, he married Elfgifu, the

widow of King also

Ethelred,

in

1017.

He

maintained a consort of the same name,

Elfgifu of

Northampton.

The death of King Olaf II of Norway opened the way for Canute to expand even further.

He

fought against the Norwegians and

placed that country under the rule of his mistress

Elfgifu

and

their

Canute

son Sweyn.

maintained control of England, Denmark, and

Norway, making him one of the most powerful

monarchs of his

day.

Canute sought

to build alliances.

ried his sister, Estrith, to

Normandy. He went

to

Robert

I,

Rome on

He

the

mar-

duke of

Canute

a pilgrimage

31

Shaftesbury,

had shown how a military

leader could gain the respect

regained the "Danelaw" (northeast England)

by the end of the

at

1035. His empire did not long sur-

vive him, but he

Unready.

by

reputation spread.

made war

II

—and

perhaps

Robert Cuiscard & Sichelgaita

25

(c.

1015-1085) &(c. 1025-1090)

This warrior couple led

some of the most daring Middle Ages. Born

early

who was known

raids in

and

battles

Normandy, Robert,

Guiscard (which means

as

minor noble. Guiscard came of age

when tions

the

the

Norman

Conqueror

their

Viking ancestors, were

Guiscard carried out inva-

(see no. 26),

and the

Guiscard was

of

central

first

Mediterranean.

married to Alberada of

and Durazzo. Sichelgaita

the cities of Corfia

played an important role in the

Normans

Seeing some of the

flee!

"How

far will

Stand, and quit you like men!"

Shamed

by her words, the Normans turned, fought and

won

the batde.

Guiscard returned to

Gregory from a

Henry

cumbed

expand

to

to

and rescued Pope

his conquests

an epidemic

17, 1085. Sichelgaita

The

a

Italy

by the troops of Emperor

Guiscard went back to Greece and

IV.

was ready

siege

Lombard princess, in 1058. Like the Normans, the Lombards were a warrior people and Sichelgaita was foremost among them. She was a towering woman, imposing, muscular, and extremely courageous. She and Guiscard became true warrior partners. Guiscard met Pope Nicholas II at Melfi, Italy, in 1059. Guiscard bowed to the pope's he could marry Sichelgaita,

at

was with him

ical role for

held important towns there.

Guiscard and Sichelgaita took ten years to push

way down

expelled the

last

to the

bottom of

Italy;

they

Byzantines from Bari in 1071.

They also paved the way for a Norman invasion of Muslim Sicily, which would be carried out by Guiscard's brother, Roger the Great. Guiscard and

Sichelgaita

threatened

the

papal fiefdom of Benevento in 1074; in return,

The when Pope Gregory VII

they were excommunicated by the pope.

couple regained favor

decided he needed their assistance to fight against

Emperor Henry IV of the Holy Roman

Empire. Guiscard, Sichelgaita, and

was Guiscard's son by

his

Bohemund (who first

Pope Gregory VII

marriage),

crossed the Adriatic Sea to attack Byzantine

32

at his death.

the remaining five years of her

Pope Nicholas invested him with the lands of

their

suc-

warrior princess played an important polit-

southern Italy and urged him to root out the

who

when he

Cephalonia on July

authority and swore to protect papal interests.

Byzantines,

latter battle.

fleeing, she gal-

loped after them and shouted,

you

Buonalbergo, but he had the marriage annulled so

They captured

possessions in western Greece.

the

Norman conquest

the

led

sions in Italy

time

Europe. While William

in

fiercest

at a

warriors, only three genera-

removed from

England

of the

was the son of Tancred de Hauteville,

"astute"),

a

on

soldiers

their

life.

Free ebooks ==>

on William the Conatieror ZD.

1027-1087)

(c-

The man who changed England was born

in

history

the

of

Normandy.

Falaise,

William the Conqueror was the son of Duke Robert of Normandy. Though born out of wedlock, William became duke of in

1035 upon the death of

Normandy

his father.

He was

placed in the care of guardians for the next twelve years and was not able to assert his

power

when King Henry

1047,

until

I

of

France defeated rebellious vassals of William that were in

William

Channel that

had

Normandy.

cast

to

an eager eye across the English

Anglo-Saxon England,

fallen into

King Canute

a

country

confusion after the death of

King Edward the

(see no. 24).

Confessor admired the Normans, and he

promised

kingdom

his

William upon

to

his

two men were only cousins

death, although the

by marriage. Edward died

in

1066, and the

Anglo-Saxon witan (high council) gave the throne to Harold Godwinsson,

who was more

closely related to the king than William.

Furious over this rejection, William collect-

ed an army of

and waited England.

He

Norman

knights at the channel

winds

for the right

landed

at Pevensey,

to

cross to

seven thousand soldiers. William was fortunate that

Harold was diverted

to the

William the Conqueror

England with north fighting

Norman Conquest was William had to work for

not yet complete. five years to

subdue

an invasion of Danes. After defeating the

England. Resistance was strongest in the north,

Danes

and

at the Battle

marched south

of Stamford Bridge, Harold

to confront William.

The two

After an exhausting contest, William's

won

of

and

cavalry

foot

to

soldiers

the day. Harold was killed by an arrow.

London. As

ransacked that

men on

villages, the

march homes and

a destructive

his troops destroyed

Anglo-Saxon

remained began to

fade.

The

com-

Following the victory, William marched to Dover, then led his

1069

to 1070, he led a systematic rav-

master of England.

armies collided at Hastings.

bination

in

aging of that area. By 1072, he was indeed

resistance

William was

third

and

trolled.

New

rulers

Dol (1076) and Gerberoi (1079) on the border. He managed to keep what he

had acquired. At the time of his death, William ruled over

Normandy and England, a vast area later be the focus of much dissen-

would

1066.

sion between the

and crown were won, but the

of France and Anjou chal-

Norman

that

battle

phase of William's career

lenged his rights, and he suffered setbacks at

crowned king of England on Christmas Day,

The

final

involved holding on to the vast areas he con-

kings of England.

33

monarchy

in

France and the

"El Cid" (Roclrigo

2]

(c.

Diaz de Vivar)

1043-1099)

of Moslem

from

Zamora, and Alfonso returned

exile to claim the thrones

become

to

of Leon and

Cid had no choice but

Castile as Alfonso VI. El

a leading knight in the forces

of

his

former enemy. For the next nine years. El Cid remained

surrounded by knights

at court,

former

his

In

foes.

who had been he

1081,

angered

the king by capturing Garcia Ordonez, one

of Alfonso's El

King Alfonso banished

favorites.

Cid from the kingdom of Castile. El Cid's life for the next nine years resem-

bled that of Robin

Hood. Leading

a

band of

perhaps three hundred men, he was an outlaw, living in

El Cid

The born

hero of the reconquista was

greatest

town near Burgos. Son

in Vivar, a small

princes.

After being rejected, he went to the

Moslem

grew up

years.

Christian

I

of the

kingdom of Castile. Spain was

divid-

ed between several Christian kingdoms and the

Moorish

Moslem)

(Spanish

caliphate

Cordoba. The Moors had invaded Spain Ziyad

(see no. 17),

and

a religious

flared

son

among

ward of Sancho, the

1065, his

his three sons:

Alfonso

took

Upon

territories

Ferdinand's

under Sancho, Diaz became

Cid" (eil-SID;

sidi

is

now

Arabic for

Sancho and

El

Cid expanded

eastern section

their holdings

of Castile and then

turned against the two younger brothers. By

lived.

new

the

King Alfonso

The Moslem

of

city

al-Kadir,

and

a takeover

El

by

a

new

Cid immediately

army. His twenty-month siege ended on June 17, 1094,

when

the starving inhabitants of the

city surrendered.

Cid governed Valencia

El his

life.

He

confirmed ership,

exiled.

Their triumph was short-

Sancho was assassinated during the

siege

for the rest

of

allowed freedom of worship and

city dwellers in their property

subject to tribute payments,

own-

and he

turned the great mosque of the city into a

He

repulsed the Almoravid

invaders on the plain of Cuarte west of the city in

October 1094, and defeated them again

at

the Battle of Bairen in 1097.

The "Cantar

1071, they had defeated Garcia, and Alfonso

had been

led

its ruler,

him in 1092. The inhabitants awaited Moslem leadership, but

Christian church.

"lord").

on the

1086

in

two

killed

Castile,

and Garcia received

the foremost knight in Castile; he was "El

eldest

were divided

Sancho received

Leon,

Galicia. Serving

called

forces for

Moslem Spain by

to reconcile with El Cid.

in

its

placed the city under siege with his private as a

of King Ferdinand.

death in

invasion of

Valencia revolted against

Spain ever since

Diaz grew up

An

Almoravid dynasty

in

war between

Moslems and Christians had

the

of Saragossa and led

of

711 under the leadership of Tariq ibn

A.D.

He

areas.

two Christian

city

of King Ferdinand

kingdoms and Moslem

offered his services to

of a minor landowner, Rodrigo Diaz de Vivar in the court

the contested borderlands between

the Christian

epic

poems of

approximately

34

de mio

the fifty

Cid,''

one of the

great

Middle Ages, was written years after El Cid's death.

— on

Saladin

/O.

(1137-1193)

The

hero

military

greatest

of the Arab

world, Saladin was a Kurd, born in Tikrit,

Mesopotamia (present-day from a prominent family;

Iraq).

his father

He came

Saladin

Jerusalem in triumph.

Baghdad. Saladin, "the

pressed

advantage and entered

his

who

Acting with unusual benevolence, Saladin allowed the Christian population to ransom

bounty of religion," interrupted

his

with payments of gold. His triumph was

itself

incomplete, however, because three Christian

on

the shore of the Mediterranean

theological studies to join his uncle, Shirkuh,

cities

on

Antioch, Tripoli, and Tyre

a

campaign against Egypt. That country

was ruled by the Fatmid caliphate, which

him. Christian Europe

orthodox Moslems such

new Arab

as Saladin

considered

Saladin led a heroic defense of the city

of Alexandria, Egypt, against a joint force oi Egyptians and Christian crusaders in

His uncle died

troops his

1169,

in

takeover of the Holy Land, and in

He

Egypt.

in

Nur ad-Din

died

in

and

to take over Syria.

could

not overcome the

of "Richard

skills

the

Jerusalem.

as

his

his

The two

kings therefore agreed to

a three-year truce, signed It left

September

Worn

visit

Damascus

his unification

Palestine,

Crusade (1095-1099).

Saladin called for a jihad (holy war) against

gathered an army

num-

ber of retainers and foot soldiers. Maneuvering

with

skill,

Saladin lured his Christian foes out

of the safety of the city of Jerusalem and onto

an arid stretch of land by the Sea of Galilee.

The

Battle of the

hills

by the water) was fought on July

Saladin

won

Horns of Hattin (two

a complete victory.

4,

He

large 1

187.

Horns of Hattin

treated

35

He

died

of the Arab world in the

face of the Crusader threat.

which Christians had conquered during the

He

city.

accomplishment

sultan

of twelve thousand cavalry and the same

the

for a rest.

there of a fever. His greatest

template an attack on the Christian-held land

two domains:

1192.

out from his battles and campaigns,

Saladin went to

was

2,

Jerusalem in Arab hands but guaranteed

Christian pilgrims the right to

the

resources in order

By 1176, he was

the Christians in 1187.

The

the

of both Egypt and Syria and was able to con-

that lay between his

battle

Lion-Hearted."

finished

1174, and Saladin

his

fight Saladin.

Saladin

English king, however, was unable to capture

the Moslem leader of Egypt. Grateful for work in eliminating the Fatmid heresy, Abbasid caliph in Damascus approved new position.

stretched himself

Acre to

the

had begun by ending the

uncle

at

of

Fatmid caliphate and establishing himself

First

against

oppose the

and King Philip Augustus of France arrived

1167.

and Saladin was

commander

named

immediately Syrian

— held out

rallied to

1191, King Richard of England (see no. 29)

heretical.

work

all

executed.

Moslem caliphate of whose name in Arabic

the armies of the

means

Knights Templar

Christian

the

and uncle

were advisers and soldiers of Nur ad-Din, led

King Guy of Jerusalem with dignity but had

on Richard the Lion-Hearted (1157-1199)

Norman

Richard was essentially a

he spoke French

more

far

A true warrior-king, ed

the

of

call

war intended the

to

in

1 1

87, Richard heed-

Third

the

Crusade,

Richard

(see no. 28).

with other Christian

rulers,

a

from

recapture Jerusalem

Arab leader Saladin

allied

and

knight,

readily than English.

including

King Philip Augustus of France and Emperor Barbarossa

Frederick

("Frederick

The

Beard") of Germany.

Red

the

three kings planned

the joint crusade together. Philip and Richard sailed

Holy Land while Barbarossa

the

to

marched overland. Barbarossa drowned

in

a stream in Asia Minor (present-day Turkey),

and most of his army turned back. After in the

whom

ol 2,600 prisoners

ter

Acre

captured

Christians

the

Holy Land, Richard ordered the slaughhe could not

afford to feed. Philip Augustus pled illness

returned

began

to

away

chip

to

and

where he immediately

France,

Richard's

at

lands

in

Aquitaine and Normandy. Richard outfought Saladin in two important battles, but he was

Richard the Lion-Hearted

The

greatest

Christian

Middle Ages was born of King Henry

Eleanor

that

157, the third child

in a

(southeast

France).

stormy household envi-

was vividly recreated

movie The Lion

From an

1

in

of the

Winter (released

early age, Richard

in

the

in 1968).

was the

favorite

child of his mother, but he also fought with his father

on numerous

occasions.

As duke of Aquitaine, Richard revolted 1173-1174 and again in

against his father in 1

188—1 189.

He was close

ond occasion when

to success

on the

father died,

his

sec-

leaving

duke of

Richard king of England

as well as

Aquitaine and Normandy.

He was crowned

England on September

3,

acclaimed

itself Feeling pres-

on

as a national

1189.

in

Though

hero by the English,

his

homelands,

he signed a truce with Saladin and returned

home.

of England and Queen

II

of Aquitaine

Richard grew up

ronment

in

warrior

unable to capture Jerusalem sure from Philip's incursions

Richard made the mistake of going through

Germany.

He was

spotted, captured,

ally

and held

who was an

prisoner by the duke of Austria,

of Philip Augustus. England was forced to

150,000 marks of

raise

Richard. Released in

only

briefly,

the

next

Richard

1

then went to

five

won

years

to

silver

ransom

194, he went to England

Normandy and

fighting

against

nearly every battle

spent

Philip.

and retook

all

the land and castles that had been lost in his

absence. a

He was

castle

of Chains

became

infected,

had spent only in

36

struck in the

left

shoulder by

crossbow arrow while trying to capture the

England

six

itself

in

Limoges.

The wound later. He

and he died ten days

months

of his ten-year reign

Genghis Khan (c.

no world leader has ever inspired

Possibly

more as

fear

1167-1227)

and dread

as

Temujin, better known

Genghis Khan. Born near the

Onon

River in

Kharismian leader

who had

died. Subotai pur-

army

present-day Mongolia, Temujin was the son of

defeated

of Kiev.

His father was poisoned by Tatar tribespeople

would be under the "Mongol yoke"

when Temujin was nine, and he grew up on his own in the fierce environment of the competing Mongol tribes. Early on, he set a pattern of

centuries

leadership both in diplomacy

and

in

1206, the huraltai (great assembly) of

battle. In

Mongols named him "Genghis Khan," or supreme leader. Genghis united the Tatar, Kereit, Naiman, and Merkit tribes into one fearsome band of

Mongol

warriors.

renowned

as

The Mongols had

warriors,

long been

but Genghis molded

more disciplined force that allowed them to win greater victories. Genghis developed a system of mobile horse columns which would encircle and entrap enemy forces and them

then

into a

kill

them using armor-piercing arrows.

Genghis began tery

his

campaign

for

world mas-

by attacking the Chin empire of northern

China.

The Chin people had long withstood

was,

however, drawn north to Russia, where he

Yesugei, chief of the Borjigin tribe of Mongols.

skillful

He

sued, but did not catch the prince.

a

large

The

led

by the princes

was that southern Russia

result

for three

and therelore would miss the

of the Renaissance

in

effects

Europe.

Genghis conducted another successful campaign in northern India. cities

He

ravaged

there belore returning to

Moslem

Mongolia

in

1224. Genghis then turned his attention to

China once more. He attacked the Hsi Hsia empire, located in north-central China. As the

campaign began, he

fell

on a hunting expedition. injuries

and a

fever

the height of his

from

He

his horse while

suffered internal

and died rather suddenly,

power and

at

prestige.

His Mongol warriors buried his body on a hill

in the Kentei

Mongolia. The

hill

Mountains of present-day was known

as the sacred

mountain of Burdan-kaldun, and

several

Genghis Khan's descendants would

later

of be

buried beside him. Trees then grew, obscuring the spot where he was buried. Today,

no one

invasions behind their Great Wall of China,

can identify the grave of one of the world's

but the Mongols outflanked the defenders and

greatest conquerors.

attacked the heartland of northern China.

Mongols captured the

city

The

of Peking in 1215,

showing that they could employ sophisticated strategies in siege warfare as well as in

on

the

open

combat

plains.

Genghis Khan then turned his wrath upon the Kharismian empire of present-day Afghanistan and Iran. After the Kharismian ruler

killed

Genghis's

envoys,

the

Mongols

attacked with a speed and ferocity that scarcely

seemed

possible.

Genghis besieged and cap-

tured Samarkand, the center of the empire; the

sack that followed was the worst of the

many

conducted by the Mongols.

Genghis sent (see no. 31),

his

north to

best

general,

Subotai

Genghis Khan

pursue the son of the

37

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became

Subotai

Genghis Khan's

one

of

most

(see no. 30)

trusted generals during the

Khan

war

Chin empire. After

the

against

destroyed the Kharismian

empire

in

Subotai went

Persia,

north in pursuit of the son of the

former Kharismian shah. They crushed Christian Georgia and entered the land of the Kiptchak

Turks

southern Russia.

in

Subotai

ravaged

before wintering

1223.

in

He

the

area

on the Black Sea

returned to central

Asia and completed the conquest

Battle of Liegnitz

of the Chin empire.

was made co-commander

In 1237, Subotai

(with Batu Khan, grandson of Genghis Khan) of

Mongol

Led by King

camped on

Bela, the

the west

Hungarian army was

bank of the

river.

Seeing the

southern Russia. With

strength of his foe, Subotai retreated one hun-

Subotai acting as the military genius, and Batu

dred miles northeast and positioned himself on

power and importance of the

the east bank of the Sajo River. Bela followed

Mongols captured the December 1240, they

him, and on April 10, the Hungarians estab-

the

forces

representing the

Genghisid

Moscow

line,

area.

in

the In

lished a small bridgehead

Early in the

destroyed the Russian principality of Kiev.

had passed since he

In the sixteen years that

had been on the Black

Sea, Subotai developed an

extensive network of spies in eastern Europe. His

goal was to subdue the Christian

kingdom of

Hungary. Subotai was especially anxious to do this since the

Hungarians were the only peoples

who had

were

hit

The

eastern bank. 1 1

,

Bela's troops

by a massive Mongol attack on the

bridgehead. across

on the

morning of April

The Mongols

fought

way

their

and attacked the main Hungarian camp.

batde was evenly matched until Subotai

came seemingly out of nowhere with thousand men; they had crossed the

thirty-

river

south

to

of the Hungarians the night before. The hard-

acknowledge the overlordship of the Genghisid

fought battle turned into a tremendous rout. By

of Mongol-Turkic descent

yet

noon,

family in central Asia.

Four

"flying columns," or

ried out the invasion. Prince

army groups, Kaidu

led the

and

their allies at

(near Krakow).

With

first

sand Hungarians

Szydlow and Liegnitz

his

right flank covered,

Subotai plunged into Hungary with the three other columns. Following

Mongol

strategy to

perfection, the three

army groups rode by

ent routes, but

converged on the Danube

all

River by April 4, 1241.

Hungarian army was destroyed,

car-

group northeast into Poland; he defeated the Poles

the

and between

difi^er-

forty

thousand and seventy thou-

on December 1241, Subotai lost their lives

the

field.

learned

that

Ogedi Khan, son of Genghis Khan, had

died.

In

Mindftil of his duty to the

Mongol law code, him home would name a new

Subotai sent the princes he had widi to participate in the vote that

great khan. Subotai himself took leave of the

Mongol court and his tent

38

retired

to

die

on the steppes of northern

alone

Asia.

in

.

Khan

on

Kublai

jZ.

(1215-1294)

through 1,000 miles (1,600 km) ol ice-capped

mountains on the eastern border of present-

men

day Tibet. Only twenty thousand of the

He

survived the journey.

army

led another

south against the Sung empire, while his veter-

Yunnan traveled by a different route to By the time Mangu Khan died in 1259, Kublai had become a seasoned military leader. He emerged as the new khagan, or uni-

ans in

join him.

June of 1260.

versal ruler, in

Khan

Kublai

and

southward

turned

concentrated his force on the Sung empire of southern China.

While the northern Chin

and Hsi Hsia empires had been peopled by mixed ethnic backgrounds, the Sung empire was

and

fully

truly Chinese. Kublai

and thorough preparation

care

had become known

He

China.

Hangchow

which he

he slowly conquered

as

captured

Sung

the

1276, and the

in

showed the

for

last

capital

Sung

of

resis-

tance ended in 1279. Kublai thereby reunified

China

the

for

He

Kublai Khan

also ruled over

T

time since the

first

dynasty had fallen

the

in

tenth

ang

century.

80 percent of the

entire

Eurasian landmass, perhaps the largest empire

Although he trade,

is

prosperity,

generally associated with

and the

visit

Khan was indeed a warrior. His mother, Sorghagtani Beki, groomed all four of her sons as prospective heirs to the Mongol empire. Her husband Tolui had been passed Polo, Kublai

over in the succession, and she was determined that the sons.

A

same thing would not happen

fervent Nestorian Christian, Beki

influence

Mongol

to her

won

and the respect of much of the

elite.

satisfaction

She died

in

1252, having had the

of seeing Mangu, Kublai's older

brother, take the throne of the empire in 125

1

He

led

control of the

an epic expedition that took

kingdom of

Yunnan province

in

Ta-li (present-day

southwest China)

1252-1254. Kublai led

his

in

100,000 troops

history.

Kublai led his troops even further south.

Annam

invaded

(present-day

He

northern

Vietnam) and defeated the Pagon king of

Burma.

In

these

southern

Mongols faced elephants After

time.

winning

many

brought

their

when

the

victories,

north

to

they

China,

a fixture in Kublai's court.

Kublai sent an invasion Java in

invasions,

in battle for the first

elephants

where they became

fleet to

the island of

1293, but the mission was defeated

his Javanese

allies

turned against the

Mongols. Kublai died in 1294, having brought China

Kublai began his military career during the 1250s.

of human

in all

of Marco

to unity. His

body was brought

mountain

Mongolia

in

where he was ther,

39

laid to rest

Genghis Khan

to the sacred

called Burdan-kaldun,

next to his grandfa-

(see no. 30).

on

Edward

J J.

(1239-1307)

i

The most

skillful and ruthless ruler of his Edward "Longshanks" expanded the size

age,

of England

Born

peoples.

Provence.

Henry

He

neighboring

its

Westminster, Edward was the

at

of King

son

expense of

at the

and Eleanor of

III

Eleanor of Castile

married

Edward's the "Baron's

years

early

War

the

"

were

plagued

King Henry

that pitted

indirectly.

1298. Through the

most ambitious of

his

lords.

followed his admired

King Louis IX of France, on a crusade

to

Africa. Following the death of Louis,

Edward went

to

Syria,

then

returned

at the

Battle of Falkirk, but remarkably, the Scottish collapse.

1305 did not bring Scotland's acceptance of

Then he

1266.

Edward

use of archers and cavalrymen,

completely vanquished Wallace's army

III

war

North

skillful

in

Even the capture and execution of Wallace

the culminating victory in the

uncle.

Edward marched north

by

Edward won in

Edward's attempts to rule Scotland

independence movement did not

in 1254.

against

rated in the 1995 movie, Braveheart, resisted

to

in

English rule.

Edward marched time.

He

expanded kingdom

He had

to

Scotland one more

died near Carlisle, leaving a

much

Edward

III.

inaugurated some crucial English

tra-

to

his

son,

ditions that remain important today: the status

Europe. His father had died during the cru-

of

Edward put down a revolt in Aquitaine and made his way to London, where he was

Parliament to raise funds, and the sovereignty

sade;

crowned

the

prince

of Wales,

the

calling

of England over Wales and Scotland.

in 1274.

Edward faced an immediate challenge in

person of Llewelyn ap Gruffudd,

the

who

the leading prince of Wales,

acknowledge the English king

refused to

as his overlord.

Edward waged a series of fierce campaigns in the Welsh Wars (1277-1284), which ended with Gruffudd's death and the execution of his

Edward incorporated Wales

brother.

the kingdom, bringing English

fully into

common

law to

Wales. In 1301, his son became the prince of

Wales, a

title still

traditionally held

by the heir

apparent to the British throne. France and Scotland posed even greater threats to Edward's status as the great king his day.

A succession

crisis in

ing the death of King Alexander into Edward's hands.

He

of

Scotland, followIII,

played

declared his prefer-

ence for John de Baliol in the struggle for the Scottish

throne.

In

1296,

Edward invaded

Scotland, defeated the assembled clans, and

brought the Stone of Scone, the symbol of Scottish power, to England.

(It

sits

today

in

London's Westminster Abbey.) Sir

William Wallace,

The Parliament of Edward

who was commemo40

I

of

01

Robert Bruce

j4.

(1274-1329)

A

tenacious and resourceful fighter, Robert

Bruce braved

many dark

from English

rule.

hours to

Probably born

Scotland

free in

Turnberry

Castle in Scotland, he was the son of Robert de

Bruce VII, the

earl

"schiltrons

(groups

"

of pikemen)

Bannockburn. Edward

won

the

II

was routed

and nearly captured. Robert then

carried the

Battle of

war

of Carrick. Robert Bruce

to northern England.

In

1323,

pope recognized Robert

the

followed his father's lead in foreign policy for

the Bruces

many

successfully resisted another English invasion

Both the Bruces paid homage

years.

Edward

English King

(see no. 33) in

I

to

1296.

Robert Bruce actually took up arms to serve with Edward

at

the Battle of Falkirk, where

English forces crushed the Scottish freedom fighters led

by

Sir

as

king of Scotland. Robert

in 1322, and, in 1327,

another truce,

f^is

English no choice

he purposefully broke

military success gave the

— they

recognized his

and Scotland's independence

in

Robert had only one year

1304, Robert

He died may have

in

which

Bruce sought to exercise some type of rule in

his victory.

in

Scotland under the dominion of King Edward

ease that

been leprosy.

I.

After 1305, Robert collected his forces and

planned a master stroke against the English. Seeing what happened to Wallace,

who was

drawn and quartered, Robert

took the

still

leadership of the Scottish independence

subject of a romantic

1329 of

to enjoy

a wasting dis-

He was

written by John Barbour in the 1370s.

move-

competitor for the

a

throne, at a church in Dumfries. Robert was

crowned king of Scotland

Scone on March

at

27, 1306. Robert's

first efforts

at the Battle

became

were

Defeated

failures.

of Methven on June 19, 1306, he

a fugitive.

Only

the death of

in

1307 brought some hope

An

old Scottish legend has

Edward

I

to Robert's cause. it

that during this

time, Robert watched a spider try seven times to

connect a web. Seeing the spider finally suc-

ceed, Robert resolved that he too

would con-

tinue the fight. After 1307, Robert led a slow, concerted effort to capture the English fortresses tles

within Scotland.

He

and

cas-

took Dundee and

(1312-1313) and Edinburgh and Roxburgh (1314) and was close to success Perth

when Edward army

II

approached with an English

three times the size of the Scottish forces.

On June 24,

1314, Robert's inspired leadership

Robert Bruce and William Wallace

and the sheer determination of the Scottish 41

the

poem, "The Bruce,"

ment. In April 1306, he quarreled with and

murdered John Comyn,

title

the Treaty

of Northampton, signed in March 1328.

William Wallace.

Until his father's death in

title

or Edward the Black Prince

C^ffl

Vy_}^3

(1330-1376)

J J,

motto,

dien," or "I serve."

"/

motto of the prince of Wales In

remains the

It

to this day.

Edward was given command

1355,

of the English troops in Aquitaine (southern France), leading

them

resounding victory

in a

over the French at the Battle of Poitiers. King

John the Good of France was taken

prisoner, as

were two thousand other Frenchmen. The tory was attributed to Edward's

He

married Joan, the countess of Kent,

1361.

in

The

royal couple

moved

and stayed there

together

ated

to France

eight

for

Edward showed himself to be trator;

vic-

skill.

years.

poor adminis-

a

he alienated the local nobles and infuri-

them with high

taxes. In

1367, he led an

invasion across the Pyrenees Mountains into Spain,

and he defeated the Spanish

Battle

of Najera,

Burgos.

near

at

the

the

Still,

increased expenses led to further taxes, which

enraged

his subjects in

Edward put down subjects this

Aquitaine even more. a major rebellion of his

by sacking Limoges

Around

1370.

in

summoned by

time he was

the king of

France to appear in Paris and explain his con-

would

duct. Edward's reply was that he

helmeted and with

sixty

appear,

thousand men. This

statement was a bluff, for the prince was slowly

Capture of John

Known

as

the

II at Poitiers

"Black

Prince"

because

of the color of his armor, Edward was the oldest

son of King Edward

of Hainault.

Woodstock

Born

at

III

the

in Oxfordshire,

and Philippa

royal

dying from dysentery and dropsy he had

acquired

manor of

he became prince

during

the

campaign.

Spanish

Following the death of his oldest son, resigned

position

his

Berkhampstead,

England,

years as a semi-invalid.

and to

he

went

to

his

last

live

He made one

major

appearance before the English parliament, in

of Wales in 1343 and was schooled in both

1376, to ensure that the throne would pass to

diplomacy and war.

his second-oldest son.

At the

early age

of sixteen, Edward led the

vanguard of the English army

at

blind king of Bohemia,

his

who

leadership.

The

fought and died

one year before

Known

the Battle

of Crecy (1346). The crushing English victory

was partly attributed to

year,

as

Edward died

and he never

armor

were

with the French that day, earned Edwards

Canterbury,

admiration, and he took for himself the king's

see today.

42

same

the most chivalrous knight in

Europe, Edward evoked great fear foes,

that

his father.

lost a battle.

hung replicas

above

among

his

His shield and his

of which

tomb

tourists

at

can

Free ebooks ==>

on

Tamerlane

jD.

(1336-1405)

The

great conqueror of central Asia was

born near Kesh,

in present-day Uzbekistan.

was of the Barulas,

and Mongol early in

with a mixed Turkish

a tribe

Wounded by

heritage.

"

he was called

life,

He

an arrow

Timur-i Lang,"

northern

Tamerlane the

to

Tamerlane.

up

grew

hearing

(see no. 30) in the

golden

city

become

to

his local

all

governor of

regional

the

of

Khan

of Samarkand.

Intensely ambitious, he defeated rivals

tales

Transoxiana, of which Samarkand was the capital.

as a

he needed

Still,

worthy successor

to

himself

establish

Once

him no

line.

children,

wife throughout his

Once he

felt

she

Ottoman

Turks. After exchanging insults by

messenger, the two leaders clashed at the Battle

of Angora (1402). Tamerlane Bayezid

him

In

1404, Tamerlane laid out plans for a

remained

army. Tamerlane's health finally gave out, how-

chief

his

ever,

home province, and made war in

penetrated even further

late in the year

and he died

at

Otrar,

The

and Georgia

caught by surprise

last

of the great conquerors

Asia.

southern

when Tokhtamish

Russia)

made war foes

hundreds of miles (km) before battle at the confluence

Rivers.

After

an

of the

loyalty that

in

him.

army of

withdrew

for

finally giving

Kama and Volga victory,

for Tokhtamish's dis-

by changing the trade

caravans

former

against

overwhelming

Tamerlane took revenge

(a

Horde

Tamerlane went north with an 200,000 men. His Mongol

Armenia

Then, he was

protege and leader of the Golden

routes

so

went south of the Caspian

Sea and through his

present-day

from the steppes, the great plains of southeast

conqueror of his day.

in the late 1380s.

in

out from

greatest military leader of his century,

Tamerlane was the

Europe and

savage attacks on Christian

set

Kazahkstan.

Tamerlane began

forty,

as the greatest

kept

death.

a series of spectacular campaigns that estab-

He made

won and

as a personal prisoner until Bayezid's

He

west and reached occupied Sistan.

lished

into a tremen-

with an enormous

kingdom of Khurasan (1381)

At about the age of

drawn

Samarkand

life.

He

the Middle East and was

shift-

states in

Although she bore

secure in his

present-day Iran.

and direction

campaign against China.

Tamerlane turned southwest against the

again, his interest

Tamerlane attacked the Christian

dous confrontation with Bayezid, leader of the

to the khan. Therefore,

he married Saray Mulk Khanum, a princess of the Genghisid

Tamerlane captured Delhi,

prisoners.

ed.

conquests of Genghis

glorious

India.

then turned

Delhi sultanate in

the

and he conducted an enormous massacre of

meaning "Timur the Lame," which westerners changed over time

He

neighbors in central Asia.

south and attacked

territory.

During the Five Years' Campaign, in 1392-1397, he terrorized virtually all his-

Tamerlane

43

nn Bayezid

i

(1354-1403)

j/,

Nicknamed "The Thunderbolt"

for

the

lightning speed of his maneuvers, Bayezid was

Murad

the son of Sultan

of the Ottoman

I

empire. Bayezid began his career as governor of

Anatolia

and gained the

of Turkey)

(part

throne in 1389 upon the death of his father. In the forty years prior to Bayezid's ascen-

Ottoman Turks had Marmara and acquired large

sion to the throne, the

crossed the Sea of

sections of land in eastern Europe,

though they

had not conquered Constantinople. Bayezid both Anatolia and the

dealt with revolts in

first

The remarkable swiftness with which he moved across the Sea of Marmara to direct these operations earned him his nickname. Balkans.

Bayezid waged in

Thrace

Byzantine empire). to

against

his

Manuel

II

he

of the

down more

put

Bayezid's

rule.

of Constantinople

region

1394, he was called

In

where

Anatolia,

revolts

war of extermination

a

European

(the

blockade

Byzantine emperor

led

to plead for help

from Christian

Europe. After Pope Boniface IX called for a crusade.

King Sigismund of Hungary and the

dukes of the French provinces of Burgundy

and Nevers

men

led an

to eastern Europe.

Bayezid met the crusaders

September 28, 1396.

He

at

Nicopolis on

routed the European

army, ending any chance for western Europe to relieve the pressure

on Constantinople. From

that time forward, the

Ottoman

this victory,

He

continued the

blockade and seemed nearly ready to launch an all-out in

a

assault

letter

eastern

when he was summoned

from Tamerlane

Tamerlane was

irritated

Turkey and

Bayezid to return the Byzantines.

all

The

(see

no.

36).

by Bayezid's actions

Syria.

in

He commanded

land he had taken from

Moslem Turk be good to the

irony of one

commanding another

to

captured

back an insolent

Angora

at

which

reply,

between

confrontation

led to

an all-out

two

greatest

the

Turkish leaders of the day.

Bayezid marched

Tamerlane marched

Bayezid focused on

reducing Constantinople.

I

Orthodox Christian Byzantines was not lost on Bayezid. He refused the summons and sent

possession of

the Balkans region was secure.

Following

Bayezid

army of 50,000-100,000

into east

eastern

Anatolia;

and met him

Angora. The two armies maneuvered

at

for

some time before Tamerlane forced Bayezid into forces

battle

from

by cutting their

off

the

water supply.

Ottoman The battle-

was hard-fought, but Tamerlane prevailed and Bayezid was brought him. Tamerlane treated

and Bayezid

is

as a prisoner before

his prisoner as a slave,

reputed to have undergone

numerous humiliations prior in Baghdad one year later.

44

to

his

death

on

Jan ziska

dO.

(c-

Known

1358-1424)

"The One-Eyed," Jan Ziska and patriotic war against the Holy Roman Empire. Born in Trocnov, Bohemia (present-day as

led the Hussites in a rehgious

Czechoslovakia), Ziska lost an eye in child-

He

hood.

served

the

in

Bohemian

of several

military

bands

and went

lords

to

Poland to fight against the Teutonic Knights, an order of

German

distinguished

Tannenberg

himself

in 1410.

He

knights.

the

at

He became

particularly

of

Battle

an adherent

rout the enemy. Ziska also pioneered in the

development of earthwork Using these new the

emperor's

soldiers

troops.

1423,

In

A

Utraquists.

there

Hussite

Horid and Strachor.

Wenceslas

IV in 1419, the kings half Emperor Sigismund of the Holy

the

mountain

brother,

known

Roman

Empire,

ries

Bohemia. Sigismund announced to root out

all

heresy from his

throne

of

his intention

a

serious

over

the

called

war ensued,

in

fort

Horeb). the

of another sect of rad-

Bohemia based around of Hradec Kraloue (better

Hussites in eastern

as

civil

command

Ziska took

the

was

led the Taborites to victory at

ical

claimed

(1421),

more moderate Bohemian group

Protestant Reformation.

king

defeated

breach between the radical Taborites and a

which many scholars

of Bohemian

Ziska

Plzen

of the castle at Rabi but continued to direct his

which Ziska

Following the death

at

Kutna Hora, and Nemecky Brod (1422). Ziska lost his remaining sight at the siege

of the church reforms advocated by Jan Hus, see as the start of the

fortifications.

tactics,

He

continued to win victo-

moderate Hussite elements,

notably at Malesov in June 1424.

new kingdom.

Ziska

bubonic

plague

the castle of Pribyslav.

He was

contracted

the

Learning of the emperor's plan, Ziska formed a

and died

band of four hundred men who

buried at Horeb, but his remains were later

selves

called

them-

the "armed brotherhood of Taborites"

transferred to Caslav. Ziska remains

(Tabor was a city in south-central Bohemia).

national

The Taborites occupied

has

the city of Prague.

the Vitkov heights over

When

arrived in 1420, they

saw

Sigismund's troops

at

heroes

of Bohemia,

known many conquerors

time period.

Ziska's

defenses and withdrew from the area without trying to capture the city.

(Since that time, the heights

have been called Zizkov in his honor.)

Ziska developed a fighting sys-

tem

that

was completely new.

He

mounted cannons on farm wagons, which could be drawn together at a moment's notice to

form a prodigious defense. The Hussite battle plan almost always called for a resolute defense

from

the wagons, followed at a crucial

moment

by

an

attack

from Jan Ziska

behind the wagons that would

45

a

one of the land

since

that

Ziska's

on Joan of Arc Jj.

1412-1431)

(c.

armed men. Traveling by

night, with muffled

hooves, the party evaded the English scouts and

reached the dauphin's court at Chinon on the Loire.

Charles VII was naturally surprised that

much

a peasant girl should ride a horse,

him

tell

she

less

intended to save his throne.

The dauphin turned her over to a group of religious scholars. They examined Joan and proclaimed she was of sound mind and was not delusional.

The

great crisis

hanging over France was the

English siege of the key city of Orleans. Further resistance

to

fell.

The

of four thousand

men

seemed hopeless

command

dauphin gave

if

Joan and bade her do her

Orleans

best.

Arriving at Orleans at the end of April, she

movements

directed the French

in

an inspired

counterattack that forced the English to siege.

She pushed northward, invading

lift

the

territory

held by the English for nearly ten years. She led

Joan of Arc

A

peasant

girl

Orleans

at

who became

the French cavalry in an attack that

and

a warrior

saved a monarchy, Joan of Arc was born in the

Domremy

Battle of Patay, the first

English in

many

years.

won

major defeat

the

for the

Joined by the dauphin,

Joan

Joan pressed on to Rheims Cathedral, where,

grew up amidst the turmoil of the Hundred

on July 17, 1429, Charles was anointed and crowned King Charles VII. In less than three months, Joan had won major victories and

village

of

in northeast France.

War between

Years'

England's

France and

King Henry

French army

at

V

Agincourt

England.

had smashed the in

1415 and

set his

ensured the survival of the Valois monarchy.

Charles VII

On May

of France, the uncrowned dauphin (doe-FAN)

Burgundian

(crown prince)

the English). She was sold to the English for

son up

as the

Around

new

king in

Paris.

fled to the Loire River valley.

the age of thirteen, Joan began to

have religious visions and hear voices.

claimed that saints Michael,

She

Margaret, and

Catherine came to her and told her that she was

1

23, 1430, Joan was captured by soldiers

(Frenchmen

6,000 francs and brought to the

where she was

tried for heresy.

ecclesiastical (church) trial,

allied

city

The

with

of Rouen,

trial

was an

but the English had

engineered matters so she would be found

destined to save France from the English. As she

guilty of wearing men's clothing

grew

she heard the voices of saints. Joan was convict-

and

older, the visions increased in intensity,

at the

age of seventeen, she presented her-

self to the local fort

commander and asked

safe passage to see the

away

twice, but

for

ed, sentenced,

on

A

dauphin. Joan was turned

on her

third request, Robert de

Baudricourt gave her a horse and an escort of

May

and burned

and claiming

at the stake at

Rouen

30, 1431.

court

trial in

1456 found

that Joan

had

been sentenced improperly. She was canonized

(made

46

a saint) in 1920.

iin

Mehmed

4U.

(1432-1481)

Ottoman

The

Mehmed was

who

leader

Constantinople was born

the Conqueror

ll,

in

the son of Murad

sultan of the

II,

Ottoman Empire. Murad II gave his son the Ottoman throne in 1444 in order to avoid the

customary succession

but

political

internal

Upon

1451.

problems forced him

the death of

Mehmed II became Mehmed faced grand

his

Murad

1451,

from

both

opposition

Halil Pasha Candarli,

vizier,

way

He

was

to

and

a

the

telt

to guarantee his position as sultan

capture Constantinople,

the

capital

army

brought an enormous Ottoman of Constantinople

to the walls

He

spring of 1453.

nons;

the

required

of oxen to pull and two hundred in

The Ottoman

balance.

down

fifty

teams

men

to hold

many would-be

past.

On May

city,

killed

29, the

Ottoman their

on high

the

Ottoman

troops to turn around.

Mehmed

He

expanded eastward

as

tribe

in

eastern

increased the size

Janissary corps

Anatolia

and made the

Mehmed

it

city's

Aya Sofya

(Turkey).

later

city

that

beautiful church, he

(pride of the sultan)

empire

He

died in 1481.

left a

power he considered himself

to

be the khan

(emperor of the Turkic nomads), ghazi for the religion

of Islam), and

sor to the Byzantine emperors).

day.

renamed

and turned

it

as Fatih,

meaning

Serbia

Belgrade) in 1459.

"the Conqueror."

his

(but

He

took

empire westward, not all

the

of

city

of Greece and

conquered Moldavia (1462), and he incorporated

Bosnia

and

Herzegovina

into

the

Ottoman

fleet

routes that Venetian

and

Ottoman Empire. He used to cut vital trade

Genoan

ships

the

depended upon, and,

after

a

long war (1465-1479), received annual pay-

Mehmed

ments of tribute from Venice.

47

II,

(fighter

basileus (succes-

rule.

known

conquering

as a

vigor-

ous empire built on a combination of religious

the

mosque. From that day on, he was

expanded

elite

Janissaries loyal

conquerors in the

Ottomans entered

into a

Mehmed

He rival

and strength ot the

to the sultan, rather than to the

whole.

well.

subdued the Karaman-oglu, a

finally

Impressed with the architecture of the Hagia Sophia, the

stakes

along a roadway persuaded even the fierce

the last Byzantine emperor, and

entered

"Vlad

hundreds of

forces in 1462. Seeing

fellow soldiers impaled

had with-

ended thirteen hundred years of Christian

Mehmed

as

knocked

artillery

large sections of the walls that

stood so

the

in

brought forth huge can-

largest

conquest.

fanaticism and tribal allegiances. At the peak of

of the Byzantine Empire.

Mehmed

Ottoman

of Walachia (known

III

the Impaler") fended off a major assault by

Turkish

sultan.

withstood

area

Prince Vlad

until

in

II

"peace party" within the empire.

only

struggles,

back from 1446

to take the leadership

One

captured

Edirne, Turkey.

the Conqueror

Free ebooks ==> li

Francisco Pizarro

1

41.

1475-1541)

(c.

Francisco Pizarro was born in Trujillo,

early age.

Shaped by

Gonzalo

as

He

Estremadura, Spain.

entered the Spanish

Cordoba,

army

leaders such

Fernanadez

the

Spanish

was the most advanced

went

Pizarro

Domingo

an

at

in Europe.

Santo

to

Caribbean

the

in

de

military

in

1502 and served on the unsuccessful

colonizing adventure of Alonso

He made Panama with

de Ojeda in 1509. first

crossing of

great explorer Balboa (1513) settled there.

the the

and

Hearing of an Indian

empire of enormous wealth, he

formed a partnership with Diego de

Almagro,

a

Pizarro

and

soldier,

Hernando de Luque,

a

Francisco Pizarro at Cajamarca

priest.

and Almagro explored along the

and 1526-1528).

Pacific

Colombia (1524-1525

coast of present-day

On

their

second voyage,

they reached a prosperous Indian town in present-day Ecuador and returned with gold,

mas, and Indians

who

lla-

spoke of the wealth of

the Inca Empire. Pizarro

went

where the

and governor of any lands he might conquer.

The Council provided no Almagro resented the

funds, however, and

lesser titles

he received

Pizarro returned to Panama, and in January set

water, he reached the Piura,

which he used

town of San Miguel de as a base. In

September

and dogs,

terrified

(November

war had

Although Atahualpa

som

ended between two brothers: Atahualpa (at-ah-WHALP-ah) and Huascar. Atahualpa

several

—some

raised an

records say

it

enormous

ran-

was a huge room

the ceiling with gold

Pizarro

had the

Inca leader executed on August 19, 1533.

founded Lima as the capital of new domain. Almagro became his bitter

Pizarro his

rival.

Almagro,

after failing to capture Chile,

returned to Peru and seized the city of Cuzco.

and just

and defeated

1532) gave Pizarro custody of

16,

Pizarro's brother

to confront the Incas.

The two hun-

Atahualpa and leadership of the Inca Empire.

whose

which

inland to the

thousand Incas. The Battle of Cajamarca

1532, he entered the Andes mountain range

In the Inca Empire, a civil

come

the Inca leader into an ambush.

with no more than two hundred men, a tiny force with

threat: Pizarro

dred Spaniards, with their swords, guns, hors-

out with 180 men, 27 horses, and

two small cannons. Traveling both by land and

new

ol intrepid followers. Atahualpa

town of Cajamarca. There, the Spaniards lured

filled to

from Spain. 1531,

band

his

allowed the Spaniards to

es,

to Spain in 1528,

Council of the Indies made him captain-general

prevailed, only to learn ol a

and

captured and killed Almagro,

followers were deprived of their land

estates. Bitter

followers

over their losses, Almagro's

and friends formed

a conspiracy,

and

they killed Pizarro at his palace in Lima on

June 26, 1541.

48

Mohammed Babar

zahiruddin

n

yi

(1483-1530)

4Z.

Mohammed

Zahiruddin

name means

"tiger" in the

Babar, whose Mongol tongue, was

a Chugtai Turk, born in present-day Turkestan.

On

his father's side,

he was a fifth-generation

descendant of Tamerlane his mother's side,

(see no. 36)

and on

he was fourteen generations

removed from Genghis Khan

no.

30).

who

ruled

(see

Babar was the son of Omar Shaikh,

the small central Asian principality of Fergana.

Babar inherited the throne from of twelve.

at the age

He wanted

his father

conquer and

to

hold the city of Samarkand, which had been the city of Tamerlane and the

Seeking to lessly,

er

fulfill

and

of

futilely,

the

Timurid dynasty.

that goal, Babar fought relent-

against Shaibani

Uzbek Turks.

Samarkand three

times, in

Khan,

Babar

lead-

entered

1497, 1501, and

1511. Each time he was driven off by the

Mohammed

Zahiruddin

Babar

Khan's troops after a short occupation. After his

second

failure,

in

Babar turned

1501,

kingdom of Farghana. He followers across the Hindu Kush

Then, using

after attack.

south, yielding his

shock value, Babar's

led

attacked.

his

Mountains and arrived

in

Kabul (present-day

The

their

men

trenches and army was routed and

sultan's

Ibrahim himself was

few firearms for

left their

killed.

entry to

Babar went on to defeat the forces of eight

Samarkand and quick defeat by the Uzbek Turks, he returned to Kabul and spent five

Rajput princes collected against him on the

Afghanistan) in 1504. Following a

years pondering his next

last

move.

Having studied paintings of Tamerlane's campaign against Delhi

in 1398,

Babar decid-

battlefield

of Kanwaha (March

Then and

there he broke the

16,

1527).

power of the

Rajput confederacy. Having already subdued Delhi,

he marched on to the confluence

ed to move into northern India. By 1520,

of the Gore and Ganges Rivers, where he

he had acquired some European matchlock

defeated

the

shoulder muskets and a few pieces of

Bengal in

May

artillery.

Afghan 1529.

rulers

By

of Bihart and

the end of that year,

Babar had the only cannons east of the Caspian

Babar ruled the entire area from the highlands

Sea region.

of Badakhishan to the Ganges River (much of

Babar and Pass in

his troops entered the

December 1525. They

known

as

Hindustan (the

Khyber

present-day northern India).

Having acquired Persian

entered the area

Ganges plain of

built at

the forces of Ibrahim Lodi, the sultan of Delhi.

design

The two armies met on the plain of Panipat on April 20, 1526. The sultan had forty thousand

December

men

humorous man given

Babar's

twenty-five

thousand,

but

Babar's entrenched infantry beat back attack

new

the

philosophy

Babar died

city.

26,

Tuzuk, reveals

49

capital

Agra and imported Persian architects

northern India) and soon were confronted by

to

during his

tastes

years in Kabul, Babar ordered a

1530.

him

to

His

at

to

Agra on

autobiography,

be an intelligent and to literary pursuits

as well as the art

of conquest.

and

«Herndii

Cortex

1485-1547)

(c.

Hernan Cortez was born

in

Medellin,

Spanish reports of that day describe

as a

it

Spain. In 1504, he crossed the Atlantic and

stunningly beautiful city more than equal to

became

the great European cities of that time.

a notary

and gentleman farmer on the

island of Hispaniola (present-day Haiti

The Aztec

and

ruler

Montezuma

greeted the

He was overawed

Dominican Republic). Cortez participated in the Spanish conquest of Cuba (1511) and

Spaniards

married Catalina Xuarez, the sister-in-law of

horses,

new governor. In 1518, he was named commander of an expedition intended to veri-

Seeing that the Aztecs feared his force, Cortez

rumors of an immensely wealthy

hostage to guarantee the good behavior of the

Cuba's

fy or disprove

Indian civilization on the mainland of Mexico.

Leaving

Cuba with

eleven ships and six

hundred men, Cortez landed

at

present-day

on Good Friday in 1519. He marched inland and met and defeated the

Veracruz

Tlaxacan

Many

tribe.

of the Tlaxacans then

joined Cortez because of their hatred of the

Aztec

army

tribe.

Cortez and his Spanish-Indian

arrived

at

Tenochtitlan on

the

Aztec

November

8,

capital

of

1519. All the

by

friendship.

in

Spaniards'

the

before.

abducted Montezuma and held him

had

Aztecs. Cortez 1

520

to

as

a

to leave the city early in

meet and defeat a Spanish force sent

him

arrest

and

swords,

firearms,

none of which he had ever seen

(the governor of

to

Cuba had become

suspicious of Cortez's ambition). Cortez hurried

back to Tenochtitlan, where he discovered

open warfare had broken out between

and the Aztec

warriors.

The

ed the city on the noche

(night of sad-

triste

June 30, 1520, during which many

ness),

on both

diers

sides

were

up

May

Spaniards and their

the

city.

and

won

the final

Cortez then

New

government of

allies

August 1521.

to

allies

and conquered the

battles

sol-

killed.

Cortez recruited more Indian besieged the city from

The

men

his

Spaniards evacuat-

Spain,

set

and

Tenochtitlan was renamed Mexico City. Cortez

house

built a great

some

at

Cuernavaca and had

twent)' thousand Indians serve

him

as

vassals.

Cortez went to Spain with the

title

had hoped.

in

1528 and returned

of Marquis, but not Viceroy

He made an

as

he

abortive attempt to

colonize in present-day California before he

returned to Spain for good in

1

540.

had received many honors since

Though he

his conquests,

Cortez never gained satisfaction from King Charles V.

It is

said that the desperate old sol-

hung on to the resplendent coach ot the king and begged him for recognition of his ser-

dier

vices.

Cortez died near

Seville.

His remains

were later shipped to Mexico and buried in the

Hernan Cortez

land of

much 50

New

Spain, which he had

to create.

done so

Suleiman (1494-1566)

44, The of

the Magnificent

I,

greatest

and warrior

lawgiver,

ruler,

Ottoman

the

Suleiman

Empire,

the

Magnificent was born in Trebizond on the Black Sea. His father, a provincial governor,

was elevated

become Sultan Selim

to

Suleiman served

I.

governor of Feodosia,

as

Crimea (1509-1512), and the province

in the

of Magnesia, in western Turkey (1512—1520).

hurried

death,

father's

(formerly

Istanbul

was

he

installed

1520. Extremely ambitious for

sultan in

and the Moslem

himself, the empire,

began

his

to

where

Constantinople), as

of

learning

After

Suleiman

cause, he

once to make war on Christian

at

Suleiman saw Charles V, emperor

Europe.

of the Holy

Roman

Suleiman Hungarians

Empire,

become

the quest to

as his great rival in

the "ruler of the age.

captured

"

Irom

Belgrade

the

1521 and drove the Knights

in

of St. John from the island of Rhodes in 1522.

Both

were tremendously important,

victories

since Suleiman's grandfather,

Conqueror

Mehmed

the

II,

had been unable

(see no. 40),

to

accomplish them.

Suleiman defeated the Hungarians

the

at

Mohacs (August 29, 1526), where King Louis II of Hungary and many of his Battle of

nobles lost their

lives.

Suleiman pushed

his

Vienna

in 1529.

September 23

on both

to

The

Feeling his strength,

army siege

the

all

of the

way

city,

to

from

October 16, was hard-fought

Suleiman

ed eastward by land.

way

to

Baghdad

series of

He

led his

army

all

the

1534 and fought a long

in

campaigns

the Magnificent

in the east before

coming

to peace terms with the Persian forces in 1555.

Turning

but some sixteen thousand

sides,

I,

attention

his

once

more

to

Christian troops were able to repel the eighty-

Christian Europe, Suleiman sent his entire fleet

thousand-man Turkish army. Furious over the

west

defeat,

Suleiman marched back

Suleiman turned

his attention to naval

to

on Malta

to Istanbul.

war-

the

attack in 1566.

ship of Barbarossa,

Knights

of

St.

John

Lacking the inspired leader-

who had

died in

1

546, the

His formidable

Turks came close to success but time and again

admiral, Barbarossa (Khair ed-Din), harassed

were thwarted by the desperate bravery of the

fare

in

the

Mediterranean.

but

knights and the rocky defenses of the island.

was prevented from entering the western

The campaign ended in disaster, with twentythousand men and many ships lost. Suleiman

Christian

ships

from Turkey

to

Italy

Mediterranean by the noble Knights of John,

who had

established a

island of Malta. Suleiman,

new

base

St.

on the

meanwhile, expand-

vowed to avenge the same year. 51

the defeat, but he died later in

"

The Dulce of Alva

r 4u. /I

(1508-1582)

King Philip

sovereign.

marched

his

men up

menacing the papal

and the pope, Alva

II,

to the gates

of Rome,

pope and the

city until the

king came to terms.

King Philip

was a committed Catholic;

II

new

he hated the

with orders to put

down

Alva embarked on Council of Troubles

He founded

(which

"Council of Blood"

called the

oppression

rigorous

a

Holland.

in

Given

a revolt there.

of governor and regent,

titles

of the Calvinists

sent Alva

Netherlands (1567)

as captain-general to the

the additional

He

Protestant sects.

the )

the

Calvinists

and thousands

of persons were condemned to death by

it

without any hope of appeal. Alva defeated the Protestant leader Louis of Nassau

at

Jemmingen

in

1

568 and forced

William the Silent to take refuge

in

Germany.

Alva seemed on the verge of success when the

Dutch formed an independence movement

known

The Duke of Alva

as

the

Sea

Beggars.

These coastal

and pro-

privateers harassed Alva's supply lines

Fernando Alvarez de Toledo, "The Duke of Alva," was born province in Spain.

Piedrahita in Avila, a

in

Known

as "Alva,"

from a family of distinguished father

was

three

years

killed in battle

old,

he came

warriors. Alva's

when he was only

and he was raised by

his

moted

further rebellions in the Netherlands.

Alva

marched

but

the French at the siege of Fuenterrabia (1524).

Spain,

the attention of

with

Hungary

whom

King Charles

he served in

Ottoman

against the

Italy

I

of

and

Turks. Alva led

the king's troops at the siege of Tunis in 1535

and

led the abortive

campaign against Moslem

was only

Alva was named commander-in-chief of the armies

fighting

in

Germany and

defeated John Frederick, the Protestant elector

of Saxony,

During

a

overall

effect

(all

of his

Mons,

at

in 1572),

campaign

of the Protestant

to stiffen the resolve

revolutionaries.

recalled his general

at the Battle

conflict

of Muhlberg (1547).

between

Alba's

new

to Spain

II

1573. Alva

in

received a cool reception at Philip's palace, the Escorial,

He was

and he was

exiled

recalled to service in

1

to

his

580,

Battle of the Bridge of Alcantara,

Portugal

for

Philip,

for his efforts.

in 1582,

but

estates.

when

invaded Portugal. Alva was victorious

reward

Algeria in 1541.

Spanish

the

on

toes

his

Calvinists

Seeing the failure of Alva's policy, Philip

Alva entered the Spanish army and fought

won

the

Zutphen, Naarden, and Haarlem

grandfather.

Alva

against

land and defeated

Philip at

the

which won

he received scant

Before he died at Lisbon,

Alva made a statement about the

rela-

tionship between soldiers and rulers that has a ring of truth: "Kings treat

They go

for

men

like oranges.

the juice, and once they have

sucked them dry they throw them

52

aside.

/in

Oda Nobunaga

4D.

(1534-1582)

Japan in the sixteenth century was a land of (lords) and a shogun in Kyoto who held much more power than the figurehead emperor. It

met the fifteen-thousand-man army of Takeda Katsuyri. Nobunaga's opponent had by far the larger number of samurai cavalry. Nobunaga defeated Katsuyri, however,

was a period of unrestrained warfare

by placing three thousand of his best arquebus-

small feudal principalities

ruled by daimyos

in Japan.

Oda Nobunaga.

Into this mix stepped

Nobunaga's father was a minor daimyo province of Owari,

the

in

Nobunaga succeeded at

east

of Kyoto.

to his father's position

the age of sixteen.

He

defeated his rival

daimyo, Imagawa Yoshimoto, when the tried to enter the capital city of

Kyoto

Nobunaga then entered an Tokugawa

lyeyasu.

latter

in

with

alliance

He expanded

his

560.

1

power

through marriages and defeated other

base

daimyos or won

sand troops

(musketmen) behind

from these musketmen caused great

palisades.

had encouraged. At the time of controlled

thirty-two

provinces of Japan.

same Buddhist to destroy

He was

retainer

Mount

of

the

the

pied

the

the pretext that

the

was

1568

for

under

He

took

himself

and

in danger.

of vice-shogun

title

when

it

Nobunaga occuin

Yoshiaki tried to build an alliance of

Nobunaga drove him from Nobunaga did not replace Yoshiaki,

equals with him, the

city.

thereby ending the Ashikaga shogunate that

had ruled Japan since 1338.

Having removed the

own

his

a castle priests

to

last

formal barrier to

Nobunaga proceeded to build on Lake Biwa. He welcomed Jesuit

power,

from Europe and traded with Portugal his power

import firearms, which made the

all

more

unassailable.

Nobunaga then

turned against the Buddhist

own

country.

killed

of

his

His forces destroyed the vast

Buddhist monastery

and

priests

at

Enryaku, near Kyoto,

most of the monks

there.

He

also

captured the castle-monastery of Osaka; the

True Pure Land Buddhist

sect never recovered

from the blows Nobunaga directed against Nobunaga's greatest victory came Batde of Nagashino

in

1

at

it.

the

Oda Nobunaga

573. His thirty thou-

53

he

sixty-eight

he had ordered

Hiei.

younger brother of the

of Kyoto

city

his death,

assassinated by the

whom

their allegiance.

recently assassinated shogun.

losses

mounted forces. By 1582, more than 150,000 Japanese had accepted Christianity, a situation Nobunaga to Katsuyri's

Nobunaga conquered the large province of Mino in 1562 to 1564 and made an alliance with Yoshiaki,

The gun-

iers

fire

n^ancis Drake

y|~7

H-/

.

1539-1596)

(c.

Ocean. This

Pacific

major success led

first

the greatest endeavor of his

men

in

December

aboard

1

The

five ships.

the

first

New

1578. Having nav-

6,

on

his

to sail

men became

on the

He

sailed north

Albion (present-day California), and he

the Indian Ocean,

Drake

Drake

was born

at

Crowndale

Devon

in

His father was a tenant farmer and er

of the reformed Protestant

county.

lay preach-

faith. Sir

reli-

gious dissension. At the age of thirteen, he was

apprenticed to the master oi a coastal

aged master

left

the ship to

him

burned

When

of the Spaniards.

He

a

allowed him to attack their cargoes.

three

men

He and

commission

privateer's

in

1572,

which

enemy ships and keep company of seventy-

his

sailed to the

West

Indies in

two

small ships. Drake plundered the important

Spanish town of

Nombre

de Dios

in

sacked

Panama.

in

1588, second in

Howard of Effingham.

command

Lord

led the dauntless English attacks against the

huge galleons of the Armada. Drake posed the use of set

also pro-

"fire ships" (ships filled

afire,

with

and floated into the

enemy) against the Spanish

at

their harbor

in Calais.

Sadly, his career did not

end with

success.

Drake and John Hawkins sailed to the West Indies in 1595-1596. The English fleet lost

men and morale due

to an epidemic of fever.

Drake himself succumbed on January 28, 1596, and he was buried at sea Bello,

to see the

to

was Drake who

It

Crossing the Isthmus of Panama on foot, he

Englishman

Armada by

called this action "singeing the

was probably the

first

and

Drake was vice-admiral of the English fleet

explosives,

I

He

king of Spain's beard."

a lifelong hatred

reward for

twenty ships, thereby delay-

At

erous, as well as heretics.

Drake received

as

in his will.

believed they were treach-

from Queen Elizabeth

many

a full year.

the second trip ended in

Drake began

He

harbor of Cadiz. as

his

Hawkins family of Plymouth. He sailed on two Spanish West Indies voyages to the (Caribbean).

as a

victories.

ing the sailing of the great Spanish

vessel.

it,

on

In 1587, Drake led an English force into the

Spanish

twenty-three, Drake enlisted in the fleet of the

disaster in 1572,

voyage and

and

to the sea as if born to

England,

celebrated for his

Golden Hind,

his flagship, the

his

He was

and the Queen knighted him aboard

victories,

Frances

Drake grew up amid the turbulence of

Drake took

Plymouth,

reached

Islands,

and Cape of Good Hope.

September 26, 1580.

England's greatest Elizabethan military leader

and

the coast of what he called

went home by way of the Moluccan

Francis

Pacific.

town on the west

after

coast of South America.

led his fleet

of Magellan from

Drake and

Englishmen ever

refitted his ships

from

expedition spent

Strait

Drake pillaged town

sailed

and Drake

August 21 to September igated the strait,

to

the circum-

577 with two hundred

the winter in Patagonia,

through the hazardous

Drake

navigation of the globe.

England

life

54

Panama.

off"

Puerto

/in

Maurice of Nassau

40.

(1567-1625)

Maurice of Nassau, the Prince of Orange

and second son of William was born the same year

(the

I

Silent),

the start of the

as

Netherlands' struggle for independence f^rom

the Siege of Nijmegan in six days. These victo-

ol

troops

II

won

the

pitched

largest

Battle

in 1600.

From 1609

to 1621, the

Twelve

Dutch

Spain.

Dutch

of the

the

Republic's

seven

Landsadvocaat

the

During

maintained

northern provinces, sharing power with

a

this

period ot peace, Nassau

standing Dutch army of thirty

thousand infantry and thirty-six hundred mounted soldiers. By 1617, Nassau, an Orthodox Calvinist, came into

open

represented the burghers.

of the provinces. After an English attempt to

was formidable.

Dutch failed, Nassau hope for Dutch indepen-

The

An impending when

religious civil

war

became the

Oldenbarnevelt executed in 1619.

He was named

education

University of

the

at

well:

he developed a

new

type of army. Basing his approach on classic

Roman

Nassau made

treatises,

Nassau

death of his older brother in 1618.

ing.

The Dutch

low

units, ten ranks deep,

drill

and orga-

Dutch army

nization the centerpieces of

train-

troops were formed into shal-

which allowed

for

Frederick Henry, liberated

leadership of the Nassau family, the

became renowned

for

their

break ranks and then reform

more Dutch

Tromp (see no. seas. The United

51) dominated Spain

Provinces

would win

scientific principles

on trench

at

Dutch

their strength

twice

land.

to

the

of engineering, relying

gunnery

and mines. a series

of campaigns against

the Spanish armies led by the

and Ambrogio

di

Spinola.

Duke of Parma Although the

Spanish formations had been the terror of

Europe, Nassau

sand

men

1590.

The

—with an army of

ten thou-

liberated Breda (his family seat) in

following year,

the Spanish at the Siege of

Nassau defeated

Zutphen

in seven

days, the Siege of Deventer in eleven days,

cities

on the

their full

would do so more by

on water than on

sol-

ability

warfare, long-range siege

Nassau fought

war

independence from Spain twenty-three years after Nassau's death; they

speed of other armies. Nassau also incorporat-

ed

after the

When

(1625-1647), while Admiral Maarten von

mobility and precise maneuvers. Under the

diers

had

with Spain resumed, his younger half-brother,

Netherlands in 1590.

Leiden served him

averted

Nassau became prince of Orange

captain-gen-

of the army of the United Provinces of the

was

power

burghers'

intervene on behalf of the central

who

conflict with Oldenbarneveldt,

of Holland, the wealthiest and most powerful

Nassau's

Truce

capture

to

Johan Oldenbarneveldt,

eral

Years'

halted the war between the Netherlands and

proceeded

dence from Spain.

battle

of Nieuport, which

Philip's

Nassau was named stadholder (hereditary

allied

to

the

of Spain in 1584;

provinces of Flanders and Brabant.

magistrate)

up

the war,

Nassau

Spain. His father was assassinated by agents

of King Philip

led

ries

Maurice of Nassau

and 55

von wallenstein

n Albrecht 4u. (1583-1634) n

Albrecht Wensel Eusebius von Wallenstein

was born

Hermanic, Bohemia (now the

in

Czech Republic). Son of a noble Bohemian family, he

He

was orphaned

at the

from

converted

age of thirteen.

Lutheranism

to

Catholicism in 1606, but his true belief was

He

astrology.

compiled

scope

in

treasured an astrological horo-

him by

for

the

astronomer Johannes Kepler. The

famous of the

start

Bohemian revolt against the Holy Roman Empire (1618-1623) gave him the chance to fully

develop his military

The

talents.

Bohemia spread to much of Europe and became known as the Thirty Years' fighting in

War (1618-1648).

Wallenstein recruited thou-

sands of soldiers to fight under his

and

also

made

loans to

command

Holy Roman emperor

ed the

By 1623, Wallenstein was the in Bohemia and had confiscatlands and estates of many Protestant

nobles.

He

Ferdinand

II.

wealthiest

man

ing,

consolidated his position by marry-

1623,

in

a

daughter of Count von Battle of

Harrackh, one of the emperor's closest advisers.

The Thirty phase in

1625,

joined the

War entered its second when Protestant Denmark Wallenstein won the Battle

fray.

of Dessau Bridge and advanced to the Baltic Sea.

Granted the

all

of his

at the

very

power when the established

German nobles forced Ferdinand II him in 1630; they were envious ol and

way

the

of General

title

of the North and Baltic Seas, he was height

to dismiss

power

his

Wallenstein immediately began to corre-

spond with Gustavus Adolphus the Lutheran king of Sweden, the

war on the Protestant his offer

was lucky

of

service,

to be recalled

side.

joined

Aciolphus

and Wallenstein

by Ferdinand

in

11

present

the

for

Adolphus

led

formations

Wallenstein.

The

was

was governed by chance

won

in

the day, but

well as

new

familiar

to

as

not

battle

not

men and

thousand

sixteen

approximately sixty cannon, fighting

men were

of the fighting.

part

early

a near

its

draw and

later stages.

Adolphus was

The

killed

in the fighting.

Wallenstein

Ferdinand plans, the

II

planned

a

against

revolt

during 1633. Learning of these

emperor ordered the scheming com-

mander brought

dead

him,

to

Wallenstein was assassinated

or

at Eger,

alive.

Bohemia,

by Wdter Devereux, an English captain, on

1631.

The two

great

leaders

Wallenstein and Adolphus

of Lutzen

twenty-one heavy can-

non, but three thousand of his

(see no. 50),

who had

men and

teen thousand

Swedes

success.

spurned

Dessau Bridge

Years'

in

of

— met

the

war

at the Battle

1632. Wallenstein had almost

fil-

February 25, 1634. His

commemorated Johann

56

von

in

a

Schiller,

life

and career were

dramatic a

trilogy

German

by

poet.

rn

Custavus Adoiphus

UU.

(1594-1632)

Gustavus Adoiphus was born

He became king Due to his youth

Sweden. 1611. teen

—he had

to the

Stockholm

in

of King Charles

son

the

1594,

in

own

in his

IX of right in

— he was only

to

make

a

Swedish nobles.

seven-

at

took

up

a

strong

Germany but were

position

Years'

The Swedes

to aid the Protestant cause.

northern

in

attacked by the imperial

number of concessions

Catholic forces at Breitenfeld in 1631.

The

He

Swedes won, and Adolphus's victory there

won

won

thereby

their

something he needed since Sweden

loyalty,

would be

devout Lutheran, he entered the Thirty

War

war during nearly the

entire peri-

him

the nicknames "Lion of the North" and

"Savior of Protestantism."

He campaigned

od he was on the throne. fought Adoiphus against (1611—1613) and lost, and he against Russia (1613—1617).

He

Denmark also

fought

succeeded in

southern

in

Germany Munich

the spring of 1632 and captured

May.

On November

16,000

men

in

the

First

of Lutzen

Battle

against the Catholic^ troops of Albrecht

which had implications

W;illenstein (see no. 49),

future Swedish-

Russian relations. Adoiphus fought between

He

1621 and 1629. city

captured the important

of Riga (the capital of present-day Latvia)

and concluded a truce with

During

his

his enemies.

Adoiphus thoroughly reformed

Poland,

his

army. By compiling a roster of all Swedish

men

over the age of fifteen and using a draft

(men

were "drafted" into military

who had

the use of mercenary soldiers.

von

perfected

The Swedes won

the battle, but Adoiphus was killed in the fighting with shots through his head, side, arm, and back.

wars with Denmark, Russia, and

Wallenstein

dead on the

left

field in

three

thousand

what was

his first

men major

setback of the war.

he created

service),

first national army in modern Europe. Most armies of the time were composed of

the

mercenaries (hired soldiers without loyalty to the leaders they served).

Adoiphus studied the Spanish improved upon

tercio

and

establishing squadrons of

it,

216 pikemen and 192 musketeers formed

in

Two made

or

men

ranks that were only six

deep.

three

squadrons

battle

group or brigade. Adoiphus formed

his cavalry in

deep;

the

a trot

and

joined

a

groups that were only three ranks cavalry

trained

and

to use swords

quarters. In addition, artillery,

together

making

it

to

charge

at

pistols at close

Adoiphus changed the

much

lighter

troops were probably the

first

and

faster; his

Europeans

to

employ the three-pounder cannon. Adoiphus brought this effeccombination of infantry, cavalry and

In June 1630, tive

artillery across the Baltic

Sea to Germany.

in

1632, Adoiphus led

6,

excluding Russia from the Baltic Sea area, for

in

A

Gustavus Adoiphus' death

57

at

Lutzen

Free ebooks ==>

Maarten n'omp 51

(1597-1653)

The

admiral ol the seventeenth-

greatest

Dutch

century

Maarten

was

navy

He was

Harpertszoon Tromp.

born

in Breille,

Holland, the son of the captain of a small

Dutch

The United

ship.

Netherlands

were fighting

freedom from Spain.

for their

Tromp accompanied during which

of the

Provinces

which Holland belonged)

(to

was

father

his

on

his father

a voyage, in

killed

encounter with an English pirate ship;

swore

on

vengeance

enemies

the

all

an

Tromp ot

Holland. After sailing in the

Tromp tain

Dutch merchant marine,

Dutch navy in 1624 as capHe showed great resolve in the

entered the

of a

frigate.

and rose rapidly through the become a lieutenant admiral in 1637.

face of danger

ranks to

Tromp fought

against the Spanish and,

February 18, 1639, defeated their

North Sea off the Dutch

on the

Maarten Tromp

coast at Gravelines.

enormous

Later in the year, Spain sent an against the Dutch.

fleet in

Tromp had

fleet

thirty-one ships

to send against sixty-seven Spanish vessels,

one

winter of 1652.

Urged by

at that time.

his lieutenants

dence,

Tromp

enough

at the

"There

declared,

bottom of the

Spanish ships, and the sooner

them

there, the better."

Tromp Spanish

led a fleet

to exercise pruis

sea for

we

As good

all

start

room

word,

midnight attack and threw the confusion.

into

After

taking

refuge behind a sandbar on the English coast, the Spanish tried to

make

Dunkirk, approximately northeast of Gravelines. a death

blow

or sinking

all

a

run for the port of

15

miles

Tromp

(24 km)

then delivered

to Spanish sea power, capturing

but eighteen ships in the Spanish

fleet in the Battle

Tromp fought First

English-Dutch

won

a

War (1652-1654). He

major victory over English admiral

Robert Blake

Early

at the Battle

of Dungeness in the

in

1653,

The

English and

battles at sea.

North Foreland

was fought

1

Battle of Portland

In the

George

Dutch

summer of

The

to a

won by

was

draw and the

England.

Monck engaged Tromp island

Dutch

Battle of

1653, English admiral

of Textel

Scheveningen. Both

sides

120 ships positioned

in

near

the

off

the

of

coast

had approximately

rough line-ahead

for-

mations across 16 miles (26 km) ot the North Sea.

This Battle of Textel

I

naval battle fought to date.

was the greatest

The two

navies

fought with no clear winner until the following day,

when Monck,

reinforced by fresh ships,

resumed the attack and defeated the Dutch.

During the

of the Downs. against the English in the

control of the English

waged two more

those

sending

as his

Dutch temporary

the

naval battle gave

Channel.

of which, the Mater Theresa, was the largest

warship in the world

The two-day

musket of

its

fire

battle,

Tromp was killed by The fleet lost twenty

to the chest.

one hundred ships through capture or

sinking, as the heart

went out of the Dutch

navy with the death of its greatest commander.

58

Cromwell

rn

Oliver

U/.

(1599-1658)

The

only true dictator in England's history

was born

in

Huntingdon

1599.

in

Oliver

Cromwell attended Sydney Sussex College Cambridge. Influenced by

and by a deep personal depression

Cromwell became

twenties,

England, where the

official

faith

national church

He marched

the

Parliamentary party.

the

English

Cromwell

became

in

and then

to death

I

won

north in 1650 and

followed at

:ptember

Second

3,

with

victory

this

the Battle of Worcester

which ended the

3, 1651),

Having

peace

attained

but not unity, Cromwell became dictator of the British

expelled the

a

"Rump"

1653 and was

in

head (Parliamentary)

Lord Protector." In 1655, he

man who

For a

was a

forty,

never saw

until

service

military

smashed

ated

from

England

Moor

in 1644.

in

his

the

creating

the

"New Model

one

of

dragoons.

Cromwell was second

mand

to Sir

Thomas

Cromwell's

won

in

the crucial Battle of

ended. King Charles

I

with Scotland to regain initiated the action

that

Naseby on June

foreign

policy

roused

Cromwell

of the Second Civil

War

(1648-1651) by marching north and defeating

Then he

crossed the Irish Sea and landed in Ireland,

Drake

at

Whitehall on September

1658, the anniversary of two of his greatest

victories.

He was

buried in King Henry VII's

chapel at Westminster

Abbey with

emony, but when King Charles throne

in

II

hung on

all

a gallows at

Tyburn.

due

cer-

ascended the

1660 (an event known

"Restoration"), his bones were

59

Sir

(see no. 47).

Cromwell died 3,

the

way

had not been seen since the days of

Francis

14,

War had

continued to conspire

the Scots at the Batde of Preston.

in

war between

British fighting spirit in a

cavalry regiments

his throne.

1650s.

France and Spain. Cromwell's

Oliver Cromwell

Fairfax.

1645. Although the English Civil

the

took Jamaica

forces

the long-standing

com-

New Model

in

Cromwell

from Spain and intervened

regi-

ments, ten cavalry regiments,

and

ambitious

policy,

Dutch during

English

London, he was instrumental in

foreign

fought both the Spanish and

northern

Returning to

Army:" twelve infantry

districts

his forces.

Extremely

(Royalist) cavalry at the Battle

of Marston

military

as

cre-

governed by a major-general

into

leader.

Cavalier

the

eleven

installed

throughout England, each one

he

after

Cromwell evolved

remarkable

He

cavalry.

He

Isles.

Parliament

lieutenant-general in the round-

military

at

1650).

Civil War.

.^^

1643, Cromwell

a colonel

civilians at

Dunbar (September

another one

rela-

War

Civil

and

an overwhelming victory against the Scots

John Hampden, who had resisted King Charles Is "ship money" tax, he

When

Irish soldiers

condemned King Charles

that

in 1649.

tive,

joined

forces.

Cromwell dominated the parliamentary trial

elected to Parliament

1640. Following the lead of his

Catholic

the

Drogheda and Wexford.

the Batde of

Cromwell was

broke out

defeated

dous massacres of

was Anglican.

in

he

Cromwell's soldiers carried out two horren-

in his late

a devout Puritan.

At the time, Puritanism was the minority in

at

his university years

where

as

the

dug up and

rn

Free ebooks ==> Louis II de Bourbon

UJ.

(1621-1686)

Louis

born in

II

of the House of Bourbon was

Paris.

He became

family, a junior

The Conde

of Bourbon.

means

(a

title

was educated by

"prince")

teachers,

the leader of his

branch of the royal house that

Jesuit

and he married Mademoiselle de

Maille-Breze in 1641; she was a niece oi

Cardinal Richelieu, the chief minister to

King Louis XIII.

Due

to his family standing

riage, the

the royal

Conde was

army of France

won

and mar-

command

of

in 1643. In that

the Thirty Years' War,

critical year, late in

he

given

an overwhelming victory against

the Spanish at the Battle oi Rocroi. Louis

combined the

use of cavalry

teers to defeat the

who had

and muske-

famed Spanish

tercios,

been nearly unbeaten on the

battlefield since the early sixteenth centu-

In

ry.

one day of

fighting,

Conde

the

ended Spanish power

in

and elevated France

to the rank

power

in

northern Europe

of

first

Louis

Following the deaths of both King Louis XIII and Cardinal Richelieu, the

King Louis XIV and Cardinal

He

led a brilliant

in

1646 and won

campaign

Conde

served

Jules Mazarin.

in the

de Bourbon, the Great Conde

The Conde took during

Lens

in

the side of aristocratic

Fronde of the Princes

the

(1651 — 1652). This

rebellion

campaign into the area of Franche-Comte. His performance was good enough

collapsed

in

In 1672, the

at the Battle

Condemned

battle

in his absence,

the

Conde fought with

the

Remarkably, the

and

War in 1659. Conde was restored

in

of

of Seneffe (1674). His

were spent

The

in a

campaign

a

great

commander

estate at Chantilly

his

to his

army

at the start

led the French

to

last

days

in

defend the

province of Alsace from attack (1675).

Spanish until the Treaty of the Pyrenees ended the Franco-Spanish

a

he missed a chance to defeat the Dutch

years;

to death

him

the French-Dutch War (1672-1676). He was wounded in the crossing, and his battle actions caused him to lose the confidence of the king. The Conde was more cautious than in his early

of King Philip IV of Spain in the Netherlands.

and sentenced

Conde

famous crossing of the Rliine

its

1652, and he fled the country to join the forces

as a traitor

to earn

promotion.

Netherlands

a great victory at

1648.

rebels

II

Europe.

country gentleman.

and

The

then

retired

to

lived

the

of

great

life

conde died

and the condemnation

at

Fountain-bleau, after having sent a letter

and sentence were removed. King Louis XIV

to

King Louis XIV asking the monarch

lands, states,

was reluctant

titles,

to entrust a great

command

the former rebel, but in 1668, the

Conde

to

led a

give

his

Fronde.

60

actions

to for-

during the period of the

MSebastien

Prestre de ifauban

le

(1633-1707)

.

Sebastien

le

de Vauban was born

Prestre

Netherlands and was

wounded

at the Siege

of

Burgundy, France. Educated by the CarmeHte

Ath (1697). His construction of fortifications enabled France to fight the combined powers

order of nuns, he became a cadet in the regi-

of England, the Netherlands, and Austria to a

ment of Louis II de Bourbon, the Great Conde (see no. 53). During the Fronde of the Princes, a rebellion of French nobles, Vauban fought

draw.

at

Legerde-Fougeret in the province of

St.

Conde

with the

two

for

against

years

the

Vauban was

troops of King Louis XIV. After

captured in 1653 and was well-treated by his captors,

he switched

He

sides.

joined King

Louis XIV's army, where he would spend most

of the

rest

of his

the high casualties suffered during the Thirty

War (1618-1648).

ened alternative

to

Seeking an enlight-

field

warfare,

became the foremost proponent fare,

position.

Vauban asked

motion

to

marshal

Vauban

He became

large-scale fortresses.

a royal engi-

neer (1655) and then commissary general of fortifications (1667) and, in 1672,

persuaded

War of

for,

and

Spanish

received, pro-

of France

organized an entrenched

He

(1703).

camp

at

Dunkerque

(1706), but otherwise Vauban's services were in a

war

that strayed

from the

principles of enlightened combat. Casualties in this

war were shockingly high because of the

change from the matchlock

to flintlock

mus-

ket.

Vauban was

of siege war-

which involved the building and taking of

the

directed the Siege of Alt-Breisach in 1703 and

not called upon

life.

Vauban's entire generation was appalled by

Years'

The beginning of

Succession in 1702 found France in a weaker

Siege

many

and

a tireless worker.

Fortification,

He

wrote

On

which was published

years after his death,

and he

also

wrote

the controversial Project for a Royal Tythe, or

General Tax (1707). During his fifty-four years

of the king, he had erected or

the king to create a special engineering branch

in the service

of the French royal army.

designed 160 fortresses and participated in the

The same

War

French-Dutch

year.

Vauban captured

the

began

Dutch

that

sieges of fifty

of Maastricht in 1673 by laying out a complete

of

set

siege

approached the

parallels, fort

earthworks

by angles and

enemy

fortresses.

fortress .-.^ft".

that

turns. After

the war ended, he built the fortress that guard-

ed Strasbourg (1684) and directed the siege of

Luxembourg (1684). Already the acknowledged master of his in

1688 Vauban went on

art,

to introduce the use

of ricochet gunfire, which were cannonballs

bounced over parapets and

that

parts of the enemy's defenses.

He

hit

several

also advocat-

ed the use of the socket bayonet, which could remain on the barrel of a musket while the gun

was

fired.

The War of brought Vauban tured

Mons

the

League of Augsburg

fully into his element.

(1691) and

Namur

He capSebastien

(1692) in the

61

le

Prestre de

Vauban

" *

(^^^

(1650-1722)

55.

Queen Anne

in

Churchill had

become

chief lady-in-waiting to

Queen Anne made

Churchill master-gener-

1702. (By

time, Sarah

this

the queen.)

al

of ordnance

army

the English title

and captain-general of

in 1702.

She

also elevated his

Duke of Marlborough. took command of the allied English-

from

Churchill

to

earl

Dutch army ed a

(artillery)

Blenheim, in

victories:

and he

in the Netherlands,

of campaigns that led to

series

1704;

1706; and Oudenaarde, in

initiat-

brilliant

Ramillies,

1708.

in

1708,

In

Churchill also captured the great citadel at Lille

by constructing an outside

fications so intricate

it

series

of

forti-

could not be penetrated

by the relieving French army. Churchill

Duke of Marlborough was

Churchill

John

born

troops were

Ashe

at

in

Devonshire. His father had supported King

during the English

Civil

War.

Churchill took advantage of his

sister's

affair

Charles

I

Duke of York,

with James, career.

He became

commissioned

and served

a

to advance his early

page to the duke, was

in the English

in Tangier, Africa

army

in

1668,

XIV

during a

between the two countries

Having

gained

returned

to

Jennings,

a

valuable

England and

time of peace in

the

1670s.

experience,

married

seventeen-year-old

attendant

to

armed with the new

He saw

the

that

flintlock

He was

fusion.

and defensive

also a

His

mus-

innovation gave the

daring attacks that threw the

enemy

men

in

into con-

master of siege warfare

had probably

fighting, tactics he

learned during his years in the French service.

During

his years as leader

won

of the

allied armies,

and conducted

five

battles

all

successful.

twenty-six sieges,

He was

proba-

bly the greatest military genius in the history of

modern England. Churchill and his wife

he

Sarah

through a combi-

his battles

advantage to the offense, and he led his

Churchill

(1669—1670).

Churchill served in the army of France's

King Louis

ket.

won

of technology and maneuvers.

nation

fell

out of

Queen

Anne's favor, and he was dismissed in 1711.

went

to

Europe and sought

to

He

persuade

(one of James' daughters). After

George, the Elector of Hanover, to invade

duke of York became King James II in 1685, Churchill rose rapidly through the

England and establish a new monarchy. George crossed the channel peacefully and was

ranks.

soon installed

Princess

Anne

the

Churchill changed sides in 1688.

ed James

II

for

He

desert-

William of Orange during the

Glorious Revolution.

When

William became

The new

as

King George

I

of England.

king restored Churchill to

all

his titles

and honors, but a stroke in 1716 forced his retirement.

Churchill died at Windsor.

him

King William III in 1689, he made Churchill the Earl of Marlborough in gratitude. When

wife survived

William died, he was replaced on the throne by

honor Churchill's

His

by twenty-three years and

occupied the palace of Blenheim, built to

62

greatest victory.

rn

Peter tHe Great

00.

(1672-1725)

Pyotr Alekseyevich was born in

Moscow The rivalry

the Russian army, employing architects and

1672, the son of Czar Alexis.

engineers to bring in artillery and train his

and

Naryshkin

in

between

the

clans, led

by the

respectively,

Miloslavsky czar's first

and second wives

men. Peter then captured Narva (1704) and

shaped Peters childhood and

Peter's

won

in

most important

and the naval

victories

came

Battle of

Gangut,

youth. After the death of his father, Peter was

Poltava (1709)

made

where the Swedish monopoly of the

co-czar with his half-brother, Ivan, but

power went

the real

who

ruled as regent. Peter lived in fear of the the royal bodyguards

streltsy,

half

to his half sister, Sophia,

who

served his

In 1689, Peter took advantage of a revolt by

the streltsy to remove his sister from power,

and he banished her sole czar

Peter

and proceeded

wanted

to

to

built to

his

country.

Russia had no navy, no ports, and no trade or

'

referred to as the

The

complete

city

tiated a trol

war with the Ottoman Turks

his success

on

Don

Peter

changed

his

from

title

died

in

1725,

leaving

Russia than he had found

a

the throne.

ini-

for con-

River, giv-

him a route to the Mediterranean Sea. Wanting to know more about western Europe, Peter went incognito to visit most of the major European nations during 1696 and

—he was — looked out of

The towering

1697.

tall

czar

Austria, France, the Netherlands,

Peter

worked

and saw the

as a ship's

great

European nations

in

wanted

carpenter in Holland

arms and armaments.

and Livonia,

Russia

to

to

and England.

1

698 and began

war against Sweden, which held

Ingria, Estonia,

seven

went

advantages held by the

Peter returned to Russia in a

six feet

place as he

all

possess

Karelia,

the lands Peter

on

the

edge

of the Baltic Sea.

The Great Northern War (1700-1721) began badly for Russia. The Swedish

King Charles XII genius

who

(see no. 57),

czar

leader.

was a military

defeated the Russians at Narva

Peter the Great

(1700). Peter had to change the very model of

63

far

to

stronger

when he came

ing

inches

Russia's north-

imperator (emperor) of all the Russias in 1721.

of the region north of the Black Sea. His

campaign won control of the

to

of Saint Petersburg was

exchange with other European countries. Seeking to change this state of affairs, Peter

which

"window

western front.

He

change Russia.

modernize

Baltic Sea

the eastern shores of the Baltic to Russia,

had what Peter

to a convent. After the

death ol Ivan in 1696, Peter took the throne as

at

was broken. The Treaty of Nystad (1721) gave

the West.

sister.

a siege

the Batde of Lesnaya (1708).

to

Charles XII 57,

(1682-1718)

Then

marched

he

attacked the Russian

and

eastward

army of

Peter the

Great (see no. 56) that was besieging

Swedish forces attacked

Narva.

snowstorm

night

at

defeated the Russians.

two thousand

in

a

and thoroughly

The Swedes had the Russians

casualties;

suffered eight thousand to ten thousand casualties.

Having deterred the Russian

threat

temporarily, Charles turned his atten-

which he believed was

tion to Poland,

He marched

the key to eastern Europe.

Poland

through

and

King

ousted

Augustus from power. Charles then his sights again

on

Peter the Great

had reformed

Russia,

set

where Czar his

army

and was threatening Swedish control of the Baltic Sea.

Charles invaded the Russian Ukraine.

He marched

as far as Poltava,

where he

was met by a larger Russian army led by the czar. Charles lost the critical Battle

of Poltava (1709). the battlefield and took

Charles XII

He

fled

south from

up a residence

in exile

under the protection of the Ottoman Turks.

A brilliant

and impulsive man, Charles XII

led his Swedish troops to

many

was unable

of Russia's growing

to

stem the

tide

victories but

power. Born in Stockholm in 1682, Charles received an excellent education prior to his

ascension to the throne at the age of fifteen.

He

enjoyed two short years of peace before Russia,

Saxony-Poland, and

war on

Denmark

jointly declared

the

dominant country on

the

in

started

Denmark. He

won

swiftly

the

war

by

invading

overcame the Danes and

peace through the Treaty of Travendal.

little

good

this failure,

for

the

Charles rode

1714.

Charles gathered eighty thousand

his largest

army to date and set out to Sweden had lost. He was

regain the borders

by

a

bullet

The "boy his

fortress

ol

king" had fought ferociously ior

kingdom. Had he gathered more

his cause,

allies to

he might well have prevailed, given

his strategic insights

64

through the head while

Norwegian December 1718.

the

Frederiksten in

mustered the small but professional Swedish

army and

sul-

and three times

incognito across Europe and reached Sweden

besieging

He

Russia,

the ensuing warfare did

killed

did not intend to relinquish this position.

war on

Swedish cause. Seeing

Gustavus Adolphus

and Charles

he had brought into Russia

Three times, he persuaded the Ottoman

the shores of the Baltic Sea since the time of (see no. 50),

men

tan to declare

men

his country.

Sweden had been

Most of

surrendered after the defeat.

and personal charisma.

rn

n'edericlc

Do.

(1712-1786)

The born

the Great

third Hohenzollern king of Prussia

Berhn

in

WilHam

was

1712. Son of King Frederick

in

and Princess Sophia of Hanover,

I

occupied by the Russian cavalry, but Frederick fought on until

all

the opposing powers were

He and

exhausted.

Prussia

were saved by

Frederick the Great grew up in a tense and

the death of Czarina Elizabeth in 1762.

combative household. His father suffered from

successor, Czar Peter

and berated

illness

rage. Frederick

son publicly while in a

his

home

once ran away from

his best friend.

with

The two were apprehended,

and Frederick had the misfortune of seeing

his

ing room.

1740. That same year, the

emperor Charles VI of Austria died, leaving the throne

to

Maria Theresa.

daughter,

his

Frederick sensed that Europe into general war,

and he

army quickly

Austrian province ot

The

Prussia

had made

His the

effective deterrent to

He

war during

died after having caught a

crack

wealthy

Succession (1740-1748) tilted back and forth. Frederick changed

allies

and enemies with

thereby winning a reputation lor fraud. the war ended in Silesia,

but he had

Maria

Theresa,

Elizabeth

of

1748, Frederick

Madame

and

Russia

the

of the Enlightenment. French

satirist It

de

as future allies.

Frederick flirted with the ambitious

even wrote poetry.

held

won the undying hatred of who gathered Czarina

Pompadour of France ideas

ease,

When

still

He

new

brought

Berlin

and

Voltaire

to

would be

difficult for the

other European leaders to reconcile this cultured

individual

with the ruthless military

leader they confronted in the Seven Years'

War

(1756-1763). Attacked on land by France, Russia, and Austria,

Frederick had only Britain, a naval

power, for an well,

ally.

He

winning great

fought relentlessly and

victories at

Rossbach (both in 1757).

from resounding defeats

He

at

Kunersdorf (1759). Berlin

Leuthen and

also

came back

Kolin (1757) and itself

was

effi-

his lifetime. chill

reviewing his troops in a pouring rain.

Austrian

the

The

ciency of the Prussian war machine stood as an

Silesia.

of

in

1740-1748

would soon burst

seized

War

resulting

Treaty of Hubertusburg (1763)

seized the initiative

and declared war on Austria. Prussian

The

confirmed the gains

Frederick never went to war again.

Frederick ascended

After his father died,

Her

took Russia out of the

war and gave Frederick much-needed breath-

friend publicly executed.

to the throne in

III,

Frederick the Great

briefly

65

while

MJohn Burgoyne .

(1722-1792)

of Bunker Hill (1775) and came away convinced he could beat the Americans.

stirring Battle

After a frustrating campaign in

Canada (1776),

Burgoyne obtained permission River Valley in

New York,

major

to lead a

Hudson

invasion to capture Albany and the

which he believed

was the key to winning the war.

Burgoyne British

more than seven thousand

led

and Hessian troops south from

Canada in June 1777. He positioned cannon on Mount Defiance and thereby captured

on

Ticonderoga

Fort

Lake

Champlain. Rather than marching

Burgoyne pursued a slow route

to Albany,

New

his

men

averaged only one mile a day during

July.

through the

When

detachment of Hessian troops

and

cattle

wiped

out

Burgoyne was

born

August

in in

London,

in

the son of a captain in the British army.

He

at

the

of

Battle

Vermont.

Burgoyne should have

when he

to find

These men were nearly

supplies.

Bennington

John

York wilderness;

he did reach the Hudson River, he sent

a large

John Burgoyne

swiftly

retreated to

Canada

Howe

learned that General William

had gone south

to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania,

rather than advance north along the

Hudson

studied at the prestigious Westminster School.

River to Albany. Instead, Burgoyne gambled

Burgoyne joined the army

andmarched south,

given

command

in

his military reputation

him promotion

on daring

raids

to brigadier gen-

tried

a

seat

in

in Sussex.

again,

Burgoyne ran

for

ran for election repre-

senting Preston, Lancashire, in 1768.

He won

retreat

thousand

It

was

a

Britain

life.

to

1775,

Burgoyne was sent

to

North

soldiers laid

down

England

Burgoyne in 1778.

He was

to

side.

an

ally

was

of the sent

widely criticized

for his surrender, but he retained his seat in

Parliament. Burgoyne died in

buried in Westminster Abbey.

to

Revolutionary

as

himself

major general, he witnessed the

Promoted

the

arms

stunning blow to the British

War.

during

their

Convention of Saratoga.

and entered the war

Americans.

America

On

Burgoyne and more than

France saw the opportunity to take revenge on

the race and held that seat for the rest of his

In

but was surrounded.

17, 1777,

the Americans in the

Parliament representing

He

to

October six

Midhurst

by by

led

Outnumbered and outfought at the battles of Freeman's Farm and Bemis Heights, Burgoyne

(1762-1763),

eral.

and won

militiamen

during the British cam-

leading his light cavalrymen

home

S.

Generals Horatio Gates and Benedict Arnold.

1759.

in

paign in Portugal and Spain

Returning

straight into a trap laid

twenty thousand U.

He made

hght cavalry commissioned

that brought

1740; he was

of one of the new regiments of

66

London and was

James Wolfe (1727-1759)

James Wolfe was born

army It

was

Westerham,

in

joined

commissioned

a

as

He

England.

Kent,

in

the

officer

British

1741.

in

who were

a difficult time for the British,

contending with the Jacobite rebellion. Wolfe's

began to blossom

career only

after the

cam-

paign that ended with the Battle of Culloden

wake of Bonnie Prince

(1746). In the

remorselessly

Scottish clans, hunting

he

supporters

remnants of the

the

against

down

could

Charlie's

Wolfe fought

failed effort to retake the throne,

Ruthlessness

remained an integral aspect of Wolfe's career

and

his character.

When William

Seven

the

War

Years'

(who became

Pitt

of the

Britain's

city,

were guarded by

(1.6 just

km) south one hundred

men. During the night of September 12—13, 1759, Wolfe brought

The

Foulon.

in darkness,

had

five

thousand troops by

five

river's

edge called Anse de

British forces

climbed the heights

boat to a cove at the

overpowered the tiny garrison, and

men and

thousand

artillery pieces

on

even some small

the plains by early morning.

Montcalm was both amazed and

the Jacobite

all

find.

September, he discovered that the Plains of

Abraham, only one mile

by the

British

movements with French troops just 10 miles (16 km) to the south, Montcalm chose to

began,

attack immediately.

foreign

until the

The

British forces waited

French soldiers were within 40 yards

to defeat

(37

m) and then

France was by winning the war at sea and by

leys

of gunfire.

capturing French colonies in North America

Montcalm's men. Wolfe, however,

minister) was convinced that the

and the Caribbean.

Pitt sent

way

an enormous

and sixteen-thousand men under Lord

Amherst

capture

to

French

the

fleet

Jeffrey

fortress

of

on the eastern coast of Cape

Louisbourg,

Breton Island. Wolfe was sent

three bullet

released

The

two devastating

British

was commemorated

in a

Wolfe under

asserted

He

full fire

himsell

personally led a daring landing

from French cannons and mus-

kets at

Kennington Cove. The

lished

a

virtual

city

of

British estab-

their

own

to

house and feed the troops during the seven-

week

siege

capitulated

of Louisbourg. WTien the enemy

on July

20,

it

was

a vindication

of Wolfe and his stubbornness. Hearing from

one of

his ministers that

King George

II

replied

Wolfe must be mad.

"Mad,

is

he?

Then

I

some of my other generals." In June 1759, Wolfe and nine thousand troops were brought up the St. Lawrence River hope he

will bite

to Quebec City by Admiral Charles Saunders. Wolfe spent weeks studying the French (who were led by the Marquis de Montcalm) to

find a chink in

their

defenses.

James Wolfe

In early

67

fell

with

won Canada

the British crown.

during

boldly

vol-

routed

famous painting by

Benjamin West. The victory

command. the siege.

troops

wounds. His death on the plains

second in

as

distressed

move. Rather than coordinate

for

Free ebooks ==>

Aleksandr Suvorov 61

(1729-1800)

Elizabeth), Suvorov fought the Poles as colonel

of the Astrakhan infantry regiment. Switching miltary fronts,

Suvorov then

fought with Russia's Danubian army against the Turks (1768-1774). Russia had Httie success against the

Turks until Suvorov arrived

and took command. He won

great victories

Hirsov and Kozludji, and

at

at

last

the

Turks sued for peace on terms acceptable

who had

to Czarina Catherine the Great,

replaced Czar Peter

1762.

III in

Even more important was Suvorov's camwithin

paign

Russia

Emeleyan

itself

Pugachev, a disaffected Cossack, led a

and

was

it

brought the rebel back to iron

Czarina

against

revolt

full-scale

Catherine,

who

Suvorov

Moscow

in

an

(Pugachev was tortured and

cage.

killed at the czarina's order.)

To less

the Poles of his day, Suvorov was nothing

than a conqueror.

against

Russia,

He

(1772).

Warsaw

When

Poland fought

Suvorov captured Krakow

returned

and

later

olutionary

and

patriotic

Suvorov served with distinction

ond Russo-Turkish War. He won Russia's great eighteenth-century

comman-

der was born in Moscow, four years after the

ries at

Rymnik and captured

Focsani and

Danube

his

way up

He worked

as a private.

to sergeant (1751)

missioned an officer in 1754

and was comat

River.

all

By

War

colonel by 1758.

a captain at the start

of the

(1756) and rose to lieutenant

He

played a prominent role

in the dramatic capture

of Berlin

in

1760 and

this time,

Suvorov

served

Paul

I)

III,

four

Russian

rulers

Catherine the Great, and

during his remarkable

career.

to

meet Napoleon on the

in

1800. His fame in Russia was

He

battlefield later

the following year. After Russia changed sides

appeared on

II,

longed

but died used tor

propaganda by Soviet dictator Joseph

During World War

1762 (following the death of Czarina

comman-

peace, Suvorov wrote The Science of Victory.

distinguished himself in small cavahy actions

in

he was the most

Europe. During a brief period of

(Elizabeth, Peter

Suvorov became Seven Years'

der in

the age of

twenty-four.

the

key Turkish fortress of Izmail, located on the

experienced and successful military

1742

by

in the sec-

death of Czar Peter the Great (see no. 56).

in

led

great victo-

Aleksandr Suvorov enrolled in the sem*novskii

Guards

the rev-

Thaddeus Kosciuszko.

Aleksandr Suvorov

Life

captured

down movement

(1794), thereby putting

Stalin.

images of Suvorov

recruitment

posters,

inciting

Russians to strike at their foes once more.

68

no

George Washington

OZ.

(1732-1799)

The

of

"father

George

country,"

his

Washington was born

From

in rural Virginia.

presence prevented a rout. Seeing the in

manner

which Washington conducted himself on

an early age, he yearned to distinguish himself

the field that day, his French ally Marquis de

in the British military service. His older half

Lafayette

Lawrence Washington, served with the

brother,

Washington's tenacity and firmness of pur-

British-American expedition against Cartagena

and named the family plantation

(1742)

Mount Vernon

in

honor of

British

Edward Vernon. George Washington became Virginia

the

He

colonial

the adjutant of

militia

led Virginian troops in the

admiral

in

1752.

ambush of

the

French ensign Jumonville that touched off the French and Indian

War

The ambi-

of 1754.

young British-American served as aidede-camp to Britain's General Braddock (1755) tious

and then worked

The

start

pose enabled the Continental

of the Revolutionary

War

altered

in British general Charles Cornwallis at

Yorktown and compelled him In 1783,

Washington resigned

He

from 1789

the colonies.

The former

British subject

American and went

Boston to

a true

assume

command of the new army in July of He would return to Mount Vernon

to

retired

Vernon but was soon

chief of the

in

in

elected the

States.

to 1797.

briefly

He

to

Massachusetts.

Washington forced the

Using

At the time of

admired

man

in

Europe and America.

trol,

this

British to evac-

March 1776. December 1776, Washington crossed the Delaware River and surprised the Hessians (German mercenaries paid by the British)

He

proceeded to win again

at

Princeton in 1777, saving the colonial cause.

He trained

the amateur colonial forces well and

shaped them into a disciplined army.

Washington

endured

notable

Brandywine and Germantown the Battle at

ing draw.

Monmouth

During

this

losses

He

pos-

military audacity, and diplomatic finesse.

In

Trenton.

his death,

sessed a rare combination of personal self-con-

uate Boston in

at

president

1799, Washington was perhaps the most

Washington sent Colonel Henry Knox a mission to take cannons from Fort

artillery,

commanMount

to

first

only once during the entire course of the war.

Ticonderoga

as

served two terms,

that year.

on

surrender

to

(1781).

of the United

became

weather

French armies, supported by the French navy,

boxed

his life forever.

he had more military experience than anyone

to

town and even survive the defection of Benedict Arnold, an American general, to the British side in 1780. Washington experienced great satisfaction when the American and

der-in-chief.

He was named commander-inContinental Army in 1775 because

Army

the harsh winters at Valley Forge and Morris-

to guard the Virginia frontier

against Indian raids (1755—1758).

he had never beheld so

declared

splendid a man.

at

(both in 1777);

(1778) was a frustrat-

George Washington

batde, Washington's

69

no Nathanael Greene (1742-1786)

UJ.

Confronted by

a nearly impossible situation,

Greene disregarded every textbook on warfare.

He

chose to divide his already outnumbered

army and march north

He

columns.

led

to the

Dan

River in two

one column, and the other

was led by General Daniel Morgan. Cornwallis pursued Greene while British colonel Banastre

Morgan and

Tarleton went after

his

men.

Greenes planning paid off handsomely the Battle of

and routed Tarleton. Reeling

from

this blow,

Cornwallis had his

their

baggage and

On

hearing this news, Greene rejoiced

"Then he

is

which

lightly

his

ours!"

Knowing

the speed with

equipped American troops just

out of reach of the

and crossed the Dan River a few hours

British,

prior to the arrival of the British.

Warwick, Rhode

in

Island,

who

He

took

all

the boats with him, and Cornwallis could only

Nathanael

Greene came from a family of Quakers. expelled from the Quakers,

men burn

off in hot pursuit of

set

moved, Greene stayed

Born

a

defensive battle

Greene.

Nathanael Greene

at

Cowpens, where Morgan fought

He was

stare

and wonder

of the

escape

the

at

Americans.

stressed peace,

After receiving supplies and reinforcements,

because he held an overweening interest in mil-

Greene again crossed the Dan River and

studies.

itary

When

the

Revolutionary

began, in 1775, he was one of the

named

first

War men

a brigadier general in the Continental

Army. Greene

Greene went on

to serve as quartermaster

Army

of

(1778-1780). His great-

and most important assignment came

est

to attack Cornwallis.

Guilford

Courthouse

in

sion of the field with large

casualty

lists.

strategy in a letter,

expressed the simple

of the army.

fare that

Greene traveled south

Carolina.

His predecessor,

in at

the wake of a Camden, South

General

(1781).

Horatio

beat, rise

and

to

little

fight again."

in the

British general

North Carolina and disperse the

nant of colonial resistance there.

last

rem-

for

it

but

fight, get

guerrilla war-

southern cam-

paigns.

By the time the war ended, Greene had chased the British out of all the south except the

towns of Charleston and Savannah. His

maneuvers forced Cornwallis

into

time

in posses-

one has better

method of

Greene employed

coastal

To make matters worse, Cornwallis was about to march

show

No

Gates, had been utterly defeated and the south-

arrival.

armies

Explaining his military

ern forces were in complete disarray at the time

of Greene's

Each

Greene wrote, "We

when George Washington (see no. 62) named him commander of the southern forces 1780,

resounding British victory

The two

Hobrik's Hill and

at

Greene withdrew, leaving Cornwallis

rose to major-general in 1776.

the Continental

marched

fought bruising battles

Virginia,

where the

surrendered retired to

march north

to

George Washington. Greene

an estate near Savannah, Georgia, and

he died soon

70

to

to

British general ultimately

after the war.

"

Free ebooks ==> nyi

Toussai

Oh-.

(1743-1803)

L'Ouverture was

Toussaint

Dominique Toussaint of

St.

Dominique, the western of Hispaniola.

island

divided between Republic.)

up

born

Pierre

the French colony

in

(Today,

third of the

the

island

is

L'Ouverture experienced a

fairly

benevolent upbringing. His master, Bayon de Libertad,

educated him

French,

in

Latin,

who

(see no. 67),

firmed L'Ouverture's position

and

ruler

initially

con-

major general

as

of the island.

Napoleon changed

his

mind

in

1802.

He

dispatched 35,000 French troops and eighty

warships to subdue Haiti

the largest expedi-

tionary lorce that France ever sent across the Atlantic Ocean.

French forces met with disaster

geometry, and religion.

in

Haiti.

Despite this good treatment, L'Ouverture

The dreaded

yellow fever struck and killed at

the massive slave revolt that

least half the

French soldiers within one

eagerly joined

broke out in August 1791 and devastated the sugar

of the

plantations

By 1793,

island.

L'Ouverture had become the foremost leader of the revolt

by

Consul Napoleon Bonaparte of the

French army

and the Dominican

Haiti

Though he was born and brought

as a slave,

First

and was known

his followers.

as

The name

L'Ouverture (mean-

ing "opening") was given to signified his astute

that

"Father Toussaint

him

diplomacy

at this time;

it

the battles

in

developed between slaves and

British,

French, and Spanish troops.

L'Ouverture and the ly,

but in June 1802, L'Ouverture was abduct-

ed during a negotiation.

form ol

a

Spain in 1793. L'Ouverture

joined the

first

Still

wearing the uni-

French general, L'Ouverture was

brought

Joux

first

to Paris, then to the remote Fort

in the Jura

mountain range. L'Ouverture's

health had already been broken by years of

spirit

but

was broken by

it

seems

likely that his

his circ*mstances

dom. He died and was buried within

much

of Fort Joux.

of

his guerrilla warfare tactics

outlawed the

when

further

from the

L'Ouverture had inspired and led the

of slavery,

truly successful slave revolution in history.

practice

He soon

much

recaptured

the

of the area

the Spanish had gained. In recognition of his services, eral.

He

L'Ouverture was later rose to

named

brigadier gen-

lieutenant-governor and

major general. After France

and Spain made peace

L'Ouverture fought the British.

He

in 1795,

forced the

surrender of the main body of British troops in

1798. L'Ouverture reached the pinnacle of success in

1800,

when peace was

France, Britain,

declared between

and Spain. He entered Santo

Domingo on January

24,

1801, proclaimed

himself "First of the Blacks," and with the help

of nine compatriots, drafted the

first

constitu-

Toussaint L'Ouverture

tion for Haiti. L'Ouverture corresponded with

71

free-

the walls

revolutionary France

L'Ouverture switched sides and joined French.

and the

apparent failure of his people to win their

Spanish army in Santo Domingo; he learned

Spanish. In 1794,

He was

taken to France on the ship Heros.

guerrilla warfare,

France declared war on both Britain and

year.

free blacks resisted fierce-

first

Lazare Nicolas Marguerite Carnot (1753-1823)

61).

the equivalent of both the secretary of defense

and the minister of propaganda. Carnot spared no

He

win the war.

effort to

Issued

on

required

all

called for the levee en masse.

August 23, 1793,

new law

this

French citizens to contribute to the war

By

year's

battles

end, Carnot's troops were winning

(known

Revolution) on

as all

the

Wars of the French

fronts.

Carnot won three of

the four major campaigns he

the

effort.

waged

Hondschoote,

of

Battle

that year:

the

Battle

of Wattignies, and the Third Battle of Toulon.

The

latter,

which followed defeat

at the Battle

of Neerwinden, lasted from mid-March

until

mid-December.

The French Lazare Carnot

of

Victory"

for

the

the

French

Revolution, became a lieutenant in the French

engineering corps in 1774.

and joined the Academy

He

rose to captain

Arras in

ok.

1787.

He

Having

a special interest in fortifica-

he devoured the writings of Sebastien

tions,

Prestre de

Vauban

le

troops traveled

Carnot became an ardent patriot

at the start

He was

elected to

of the French Revolution.

the Legislative Assembly in 1791 and then to

the

more

1792.

January

of the delegates Louis

YN\

National

radical

In

who

ation called for

When

Convention

in

Responding

to the

known tine,

for

mittee;

a

its

Safety

fell

extreme methods,

Carnot escaped punishment; he pointed

to his

which showed he had been the

indis-

pensable leader needed to save the Revolution

from

its

foreign

foes.

He

served as one of

the five directors in the Directory government

(1795-1799) and then occupied the post of Carnot quarreled with Napoleon and resigned the position. (Napoleon was the

the

summer of 1793.

emergency, the Committee

was formed. Although best

the committee also ran the war effort.

Carnot held

Committee of Public

voted to put French king

was

indiscriminate use of the guillo-

its

the situ-

it.

from power because of

prominent place on the com-

by the end of the year he had become

young

artillery

captain credited for France's victory at Toulon.)

country and came close to capturing the heart

of Public Safety

their foes

when

minister of war for Napoleon (see no. 67).

he

Austrian and Prussian forces entered the

during

the

in divi-

one

1793,

to death.

of France

One

The French

more quickly than

but could fight together as one

record,

(see no. 54).

French forces to move

called for the

sions rather than as an entire army.

There he studied military science and engineering.

went on the offensive

reason for their success was Carnot's strategy.

Marguerite Carnot,

Nicolas

Lazare

"Organizer

forces

1794 and conquered the Netherlands.

in

France

was threatened by invasion

in

1814. Carnot volunteered to serve and led the defense of the city of Antwerp.

Napoleon was

finally defeated in

When

1815, Carnot

was exiled from the country because of his tus as a regicide ("king killer").

Magdeburg,

Prussia,

sta-

died in

one of the forgotten

heroes of revolutionary France.

72

He

on

Horatio Nelson

UD.

(1758-1805)

England's

Norfolk.

naval

greatest

Nelson, was

born

He went

leader,

Horatio

Burnham-Thorpe,

at

midshipman

to sea as a

had

fleet

including

the

the largest ship in

the

thirty-three

ships,

in

Santissima

at

world. Nonetheless, the French and Spanish

Trinidad,

the age of twelve and rose to lieutenant in the

were demoralized from the

Royal Navy by the age of nineteen. Promoted

knew

Nelson served

to post-captain (1779),

in the

that

Nelson led the

to the fleet read

ing a time of relative peace (1784-1787).

will

The

start

command was

that of the sixt)'-four-gun warship

He

Corsica (1794) and in

gamemnon.

participated in the capture of the island of

combat

of his right eye

lost the use

Nelson had tudied and absorbed the lessons

Sir

George Rooke, Admiral George

Anson, Admiral Edward Hawke, and Admiral

George Rodney. From them, he created simple but revolutionary plan of

from the (a

do

win

battle:

was wounded on the deck of

but

risky,

it

He

was

first

line.

to

evident at the Battle

of Cape Saint Vincent. Nelson sailed directly

and captured two

into the Spanish line of ships

ships that were both larger than his

was knighted and promoted

Nelson went on the

French

He

to rear admiral.

meet and completely defeat

to

fleet

own.

the

at

of the Nile

Battle

(1798), after which he was elevated to the level

of peer of the realm.

Nelson fought the Danish navy of Copenhagen (1802).

was hanging

from

When

in the balance,

tended not to see the

sign,

at the Battle

the battle action

he received a signal

his superior officer to retire.

Nelson pre-

fought on, and

won

a complete victory.

Nelson's last battle

came

at

Cape

off the coast of Spain, in 1805.

ty-seven ships; the

Trafalgar,

He had

Victory

died on board and was brought to

Cathedral in London for burial.

his

had the potential

HMS

by

a bullet from a sharpshooter during the action.

depart

and break the enemy's

years)

strategy

and

French and Spanish fought with great courage,

great victories.

The

line

enemy with carronades (short-barreled cannons known as "smashers") and double-shotted cannon firing at close range. The battered the

traditional formation of a line of ships

one hundred

man

his duty."

formation that had been prevalent for over

This plan was

last signal

"England expects every

but the British gunners were superior. Nelson

there.

of the great eithteenth-century British com-

manders

For his part,

Nelson broke the Franco-Spanish

of the French Revolution providfirst

because they

Nelson was confident of victory. His

Caribbean to enforce the Navigation Laws dur-

ed action for Nelson. His

start,

British.

rwen-

Horatio Nelson

combined Franco-Spanish

73

St. Paul's

Napoleon Bonaparte 6] The

genius of modern Napoleon Bonaparte was

military

greatest

French

history,

born on the island of Corsica, which was con-

by

quered

He

birth.

4

(1769-1821)

France

the

year

arrived in France in

1778

in

of

his

marshals became

independent

brilliant,

field

Napoleon used a mass of infantry, and cavalry to break his foe's

commanders. artillery,

line at

its

weakest point.

His greatest victories were Marengo (1800),

to study

language and attend a military preparatory

Austerlitz (1805), Jena

The onset of the French Revolution provided him with the opportunity to exert his keen mind and tremendous will. Napoleon commanded the artillery that

and Friedland (1807). He could snatch victory

school.

forced

the

British

Toulon (1794) and

from defeat by

and he had

to

fired

cannon

crowds

in 1795.

new

Directory government

him to Italy, where commanders had

prior

He

one

by

and Russia, however, were

Austrians and their

consistently defeated in Spain

by the Duke of Wellington (see no. 68).

brought

He

Egypt.

Mamelukes Pyramids,

at

but

his

into Russia in 1812, but he

The

In

army

Battle

to

in

1799, Napoleon set

up the new

year

made ter-

1814 and was

his

throne

exiled to the

became emperor again one hundred

soon changed

his title to first

con-

Netherlands

and then,

1804, to emperor of

in

armies

A

he escaped, returned to France, and

first

days.

to

for the brief period

He marched

of

north into the

meet the British-Prussian

under the Duke of Wellington.

A

younger, sharper Napoleon might well have

Napoleon devised simple

a military system that

and

profound.

was

Building

overcome Wellington

emperor had fought

Marguerite Carnot Revolution,

(see

no.

65) during the

Napoleon divided the

French armies into independent corps that

for-

at

Waterloo,

but the

his last battle.

After abdicating a second time. Napoleon

on the methods developed by Lazare Nicolas French

later,

as

France.

both

Napoleon abdicated

Napoleon Bonaparte

Consulate government, with himself

He

all

small island ol Elba in the Mediterranean. in

overthrew the Directory and

life,

as

rible disaster.

British at

Returning to France

sul for

1812-1813

of

ter

the Battle of the Nile.

consul.

such

Napoleon's Russian campaign a

of the

return to France after his fleet

was destroyed by the

Russian defense, battles

Borodino, and the harsh win-

to

had

then

fierce

grinding

the

defeated the

per-

men

returned with only 50,000.

1798, he sailed with a large fleet that

Napoleon

sonally took 600,000

the

allies.

his

marshals were

His

downfall.

astounded everydefeating

Guard, the core

his Imperial

failed to oust the Austrian

army.

battlefield,

Napoleon's intervention in Spain

The

sent

on the

impact upon the veter-

of the Napoleonic armies.

shot to disperse the rebellious Parisian

his presence

a personal

who formed

ans

evacuate

fleet

and Auerstadt (1806),

was confined by the of

St.

Helena

British to the tiny island

in the

Ocean. Napoleon died

middle of the Atlantic in

1821, the victim ol a

aged for food, lived off the land, and converged

stomach ailment. Rumors that the

suddenly in the heartland of the enemy. His

poisoned him lingered for

74

years.

British

had

"

nn

Arthur wellesley

OO.

(1769-1852)

Born

Arthur Wellesley, Duke of

in Ireland,

Wellington (he was the

joined

known

as "Wellington"),

infantry

British

lieutenant

a

as

colonel in 1794. Wellington went with his reg-

iment

to India in 1796. In India,

learned the advantages oi

scape and recruiting

allies,

knowing the landwhich he did among

He won

the Indian leaders.

Assaye (1803) and

Wellington

notable victories at

Argaum

He was

(1803).

troops

French

down

over

and

British

Napoleon

it

for the

The French emperor.

their allies.

had consistently beaten

(see no. 67),

the Austrians, Prussians, and Russians and had

placed

recently

his

brother Joseph

The

Spanish throne in Madrid.

on the

success or

fail-

"It

has

ceived

and

landscape

the

that

would have been done later

served

as

compliant

capabilities but to the fact that

their

supply

lines

Portuguese over to his

The

results

remarkable.

shattering

them during

his

time as prime min-

adviser to

as the

Queen

most astute and farseeing

Victoria.

good road systems populations.

and brought many

side.

of Wellington's planning were defeated

Massena, one of the best French marshals, in

1810.

He

followed with an invasion ot

French-held Spain and

won

impressive victo-

Salamanca (1812) and Vitoria (1814). As Napoleon's empire collapsed around him, ries at

Wellington invaded France Battle

itself

and won the

of Toulouse (1814). After Napoleon

escaped from Elba and returned to Paris in

1815, the two most experienced military com-

manders of

on June

their period collided at

Waterloo

18, 1815.

Wellington

fought

Sir defensively,

diplomat

Until the time of his death, Wellington

topography

He outmaneuvered and

had

he had iron bars

Wellington arranged to have the French cut off

from

I

placed over his windows to prevent stones from

correctly per-

peasant

a

if

famous nickname,

French armies were used

to fighting in countries with

and

He

did Wellington.

army.

the "Iron Duke," referred not to his military

was revered

understood

it

Britain (1828-1830). His

of great importance

as clearly as

last

(1815-1828) and prime minister of Great

ister.

to the British cause.

a final,

own comment on the battle was, been a damned nice thing. By God! I

ure of Wellington's operations, theretore, were

Perhaps no commander, before or since, has

of the day.

Guard made

charge that soon routed Napoleon's

Wellington

was the worst of times

course

a

wore the

Wellington's

1808.

in

the

men on

his

Jean, he

Wellington ordered a general

assault,

failed

not been there.

land,

St.

After Napoleon's Imperial

mand

On

Mount

ridge crested by

don't think

ed in Portugal

Positioning

arrived.

then called back to England and given com-

of a small expeditionary force that land-

Marshal Bluchers Prussian

to hold out until

seeking

75

Arthur Wellesley

nn Karl von Clausewitz (1780-1831)

Do.

military tutor to the

During

this

crown prince of

Prussia.

productive time, he also wrote and

lectured at the Kriegsakadamie.

Napoleon invaded

1812,

In

had taken care first,

but even

to so,

make

He

Russia.

a treaty with Prussia

Clausewitz was outraged by

He

the French emperor's actions.

left Prussia,

entered Russia, and volunteered for service in

army of Czar Alexander

the

staff officer in Russia

I.

He

served as a

and was instrumental

in

the Treaty of Kalisch (1813) between Russia

and

Prussia,

which brought Prussia back

into the coalition alliance against Napoleon.

During the Waterloo campaign, he served

as

chief of staff for one of the four Prussian field corps.

The Napoleonic Wars ended in 1815. was made major gener-

In 1818, Clausewitz al

and given the position of director of the

Kriegsakadamie. There he thrived, writing and

Karl von Clausewitz Burg,

in

70 miles (113 km) from Berlin. was a retired Prussian lieutenant.

Prussia,

His father

his

during

Prussia's

made

a lance corporal

war against France.

He

rose to

of subaltern in 1795, and in 1801 he

the level

entered the

Academy)

new Kriegsakadamie

(Prussian

War

and philosophy. He

thrilled

to the theoretical aspects of military studies, but

was

also

drawn

to his

work by

to see Prussia flourish.

Napoleon

(see no.

When

during

and held prisoner observed

the

fight.

Battle

the

first-hand

1

He was of

for a year in France,

war machine of his After

France, led by

67) invaded Prussia in

Clausewitz volunteered to tured

a patriotic desire

most

many

Clausewitz wrote

in

the

tracts,

to

most

1832. In this seminal work, he surveyed the

field

of military

strategy.

Aside from describing

military history, he delved into the philosophy "a

mere

continuation of policy by other means." In other words, political goals were primary, while

He

military events were secondary.

cussed

the

varieties

of Sebastien

While

it

Prenzlau

favored

where he

Frederick

le

of military

Prestre

de Vauban

was always

Prussia

the

also dis-

and

tactics

had evolved during the days

that

strategies

cap-

clear

and the

Great

(see no. 54).

that

Clausewitz

traditions

(see

no.

58),

ot

King

he

took

made by

time to examine the contributions military innovators such as Napoleon.

day.

returning

(see no. 72).

important of which was Vom Kriege {On War)

806,

successful

of

many

Helmuth

students there, most notably that of

of warfare and declared that war was

in Berlin.

At the Kriegsakadamie, Clausewitz studied military science

remainder

of the

His work shaped the careers of

von Moltke

Clausewitz joined the Prussian army at the age of twelve and was

life.

most

for

lecturing

von Clausewitz was born

Karl

Prussia

in

Clausewitz

1808,

returned

to

active

service

in

Clausewitz became a major on the Prussian

1830. While stationed on the Prussian border

general staff (1810) and received the post of

with Poland, he contracted cholera and died.

76

"rn

Simon Bolivar

/U.

11783-1830)

Simon

Bolivar

dom

referred

undying determination

win the

to

of his people from European

was born

Boii'var

to

as

Washington of South America"

the "George for his

often

is

free-

rule.

then part of the Spanish empire of South

A rich

America.

French Revolution and the (see no. 67).

August in

never to

made

on his

of the United

became

movement

a revolutionary

the leader of

that deposed the

viceroy of Caracas in 1810

in the fight for

independence.

from

Venezuelan

Ejected

Caracas, he fled to Cartagena in present-day

Boh'var led a reconquering of

Colombia. Caracas

1813 but was forced out by

in

to

misunderstanding that

from the scene, and Boh'var and

complete the war for Peruvian indepenBoh'var had to remain in

Gran Colombia

during most of the campaign that followed. In 1824,

De

Sucre

won

the crucial battles of

Junin and Ayacucho that ended the war. military

Bolivar's

actions

for

independence from colonialism.

Having attained nearly Boh'var found

what he had

it

in

1830,

created. His "Great

tuberculosis.

the

states in

as

president

base at Angostura on the Orinoco in

a

He

an epic crossing of the Andes

1819 and won the Battle of Boyaca on August 7. Soon

mountain range decisive

River.

in July

afterward, Boh'var had the satisfaction of seeing

Venezuela,

New

Granada

(present-day

Colombia), and Quito (present-day Ecuador)

combine

into

Colombia. first

the

Boh'var

as

the

republic's

president.

Continuing the rialism,

he

24, 1821. in

new Republic of Gran served

1822

to

fight against Spanish

impe-

the Battle of Carabobo on June

won He traveled

to Guayaquil, Ecuador,

meet with Jose de San Martin, who

Simon Boh'var

had won the war of Chilean independence.

77

a failure;

Colombia.

of the now-

and he retired in great sadness. same year, Bolivar died from

defiinct nation,

failed.

low point. Bolivar established

Convention"

1826 was

Republic of Gran

resigned

that

of his goals,

Venezuela and then Quito seced-

first

launched a seaborne attack on Venezuela that

Boh'var

all

impossible to hold together

of South American

Later

men

for

the Jamaica Letter (1815), both of which called

finally to independent Haiti. In 1816, Boh'var

led his

the

he wrote the Cartagena Memorial (1812) and

ed from

at a

expelled

from South America

Spanish presence

(who supported the royal cause) in 1814. Boh'var again went to Cartagena, then to British-held Jamaica, and

Venezuelan horsem*n

Truly

his

dence.

solemn vow

rule.

States in 1807, Boh'var

a

good. In addition to his military achievements,

home by way

Returning

a

he saw,

he had freed

rest until

people from Spanish

of the

of Napoleon

rise

Deeply moved by what

15, 1805, Boh'var

Rome

retired

Creole by birth, he traveled in

Europe, where he observed the end

had

leaders

has never been fully explained. San Martin

right-hand lieutenant, Jose de Sucre, decided

Caracas, Venezuela,

in

The two

Free ebooks ==> -11

Winfield Scott

/ I.

(1786-1866)

Winfield

attended

Scott

College of

the

William and Mary and practiced law a

time before

He

turning to

Army

joined the U.S.

beginning of the

War

military in

for

service.

1808. At the

of 1812, Scott was

made

a lieutenant colonel.

Given the task of turning raw troops

his

under

methods of

drilled

and true European

tried

His reward came at Chippewa and Lundy's Lane

discipline.

the battles of

(1814), where his

men

held their

the best British regulars,

served

recruits

marched and

into true soldiers, Scott

own

some of

under Arthur Wellesley,

Wellington

in

ended the war

Spain

as a brevet

Scott wrote the

no.

(see

against

whom

had

Duke

of

Scott

68).

major general.

first set

of U.S.

regulations. Well-versed in

Army

European

drill

history,

he sought to create an aristocratic officer corps that

would be the equal of England's. Scott was general-in-chief of the army in 1841 and

made

was promoted In

1

to lieutenant general in 1844.

846, Scott received word from President

Winfield Scott

James Polk that he would lead the proposed

and won key

invasion of central Mexico and, if necessary, would prosecute the war all the way to the Mexican capital. Scott took twelve thousand

and west of the

troops by ship to Mexico, landed, and besieged

the outlying areas, but the fortified citadel of

the key port city of Veracruz. After capturing

Chapultepec (the name means "Hill of the

the

made

he

city,

dangerous decision to

a

By September

Hernan Cortez

(see no.

43) had

taken in 1521. Scott's choice to invade quickly

was necessitated by the

fact that the

would soon hit did every summer.

ease yellow fever

lowlands, as

The

it

U.S.

forces

and won important

marched battles

at

deadly disthe coastal

into

12, the U.S. forces controlled

Scott's

troops captured

Mexico

all

Chapultepec and

on September 13; the war was effectively over. Scott was a model of efficiency in his role as conqueror and administrator; some Mexicans reportedly begged him to entered Mexico City

serve as their national leader.

Cerro Gordo

battles at

Grasshoppers") remained.

advance inland, following almost exactly the invasion route

city

Contreras, Churubusco, and Molino del Reyo.

the United States

on

the

Whig

He

(1848) and ran

party ticket in

returned to for president

1852, but was

his

defeated by one of his former military subordi-

troops arrived outside the Mexican capital and

nates. Franklin Pierce. Prior to his retirement

on the way marveled

at

to

Mexico

both the

city

City.

Scott

and

and the defenses

set

up by Mexican general Santa Anna. Never Scott maneuvered to the south

daunted,

in

1861, Scott devised the Anaconda Plan,

which involved strangling the Confederacy through a naval blockade.

78

"70

Helmutli von Moltlce

//.

(1800-1891)

Called the "Bismarck of the battlefield,"

Helmuth von Moltke was born in

Mecklenburg,

Copenhagen and served

army

briefly in the

before joining the Prussian

He studied

at the

academy

military

royal

Parchim,

Moltke grad-

Prussia, in 1800.

from the

uated

in

army

at

Danish

well as

Kriegsakadatnie (Prussian

War

Sedan.

in

lessons offered

who was

director.

served

as

Crown

was named

first

major general

to

in

1856.

Prussian

the

army's

when he was named eral staff in

The

— development— came

turning point in his career

crucial

promoted

well

as

chief of the Prussian gen-

to field

and

count

in

1870 and was

marshal in 1871, the year the

vision of

Otto von Bismarck and Moltke.

In the last years of his distressed

that

life,

Moltke became

by the attitudes of the military clique

surroimded the new Prussian emperor,

Wilhelm

II.

He

spoke out against the narrow-

mindedness of the military leaders Reichstag

(German

died while on a

1857.

a

surrendered at

111,

German Empire was formed. The creation of the new empire was largely due to the efforts

adjutant to

Prince Frederick William in 1855 and

was promoted

as

He

adviser

Ottoman Empire from

to the sultan of the to 1839.

military

a

Emperor Napoleon

Moltke was made

by the

Moltke devised and exe-

to perfection; the bulk ol the French army, as

822.

Karl von Clausewitz (see no. 69),

1835

repeat his earlier plans,

cuted a concentrated attack. His vision worked

1

Academy) and absorbed the

Moltke

formidable that no other Prussian leader would contest his viev/s openly. Rather than attempt to

legislature) in

visit to

1

Berlin a year

Having studied the campaigns of Frederick the Great of Prussia (see no. 58) (see no. 67),

Moltke applied

and Napoleon

their lessons to the If

changes brought by

new

military technology.

Planning for future wars, he intended to use the railroad, the telegraph,

and the

industrial pro-

duction of weapons to achieve a decentralized

command of forces

structure

and a

greater concentration

He

thereby brought the

at the front.

essence of Napoleonic warfare

oped

and

—mobility— up

with modern technology. Moltke devel-

to date

war machine

Prussia's

to strike hard, fast,

decisively.

The

first

of

test

Prussian-Danish

his

War of

tactics

came

in

the

1864. Prussia's solid

victory enhanced his stature,

and Moltke

pre-

pared for the coming break with Austria. In 1

866, Prussia and Austria collided in the Seven

Weeks' War. Using Moltke's plans, three disconnected Austrian

columns

territory.

of

troops

of Koniggratz, which

By

1

large,

entered

They suddenly converged

and attacked the shocked Austrians

won

at the Battle

the war.

Helmuth von Moltke

870, Moltke's reputation had grown so

79

at

the

890. Moltke later.

Free ebooks ==> "in

David FarraguC

/j.

(1801-1870)

David Farragut was born a

who

Spanish sea captain

colonists

Stony Point,

in

His father was George Farragut,

Tennessee.

fought for the

War and

Revolutionary

the

in

settled in Tennessee. After his

mother

died, the

young Farragut was adopted by David

who

U.S. naval officer

Porter, a

obtained a midship-

man's warrant for Farragut in 1810. Farragut the

USS

under Porter on board

served

Essex during

War

the

of 1812.

He was promoted

to lieutenant (1825), commander (1841), and captain (1855). He established the Mare Island Naval Ship Yard (in pre-

sent-day Vallejo, California) in 1854

The beginning of

momentum

the

to his career.

Civil

gave

When Virginia opted

from the Union

for secession

.

War

in April 1861,

moved north and proUnion man. He was named

Farragut immediately

claimed himself a

commander of Squadron

West Gulf Blockading

the

on August

in 1861.

The Anaconda Winfield Scott

Plan designed by General

(see no. 71) called for a block-

and

South

ade

of

the

Mississippi

the

River.

takeover

a

Following

of

orders

from Secretary of the Navy Gideon Welles, Farragut led seventeen

Confederate

forts

on the lower

David Farragut and four ironclad monitors into the channel

wooden

ships past the

of Jackson

Mississippi

and Philip

during the night

of April 23, 1862. Darkness, fog, and smoke

the

USS

diately; the

began

1864.

5,

The

Tec*mseh, hit a

to

USS

second monitor, the

back

way out of

its

monitor,

leading

mine and sank immeBrooklyn,

the channel,

threatening to pile up the ships behind Assessing the situation from aboard the

it.

USS

Hartford (right in line after the Brooklyn), Farragut

made

"Damn

the

famous split-second decision.

a

torpedoes,"

he shouted.

"Full

speed ahead!"

His ship and the

helped to keep the casualties low as the Union

rest

of the

fleet

passed over

past the forts. Helpless

the mines without incident. Farragut entered

before the guns of Farragut's ships, the city

the harbor, defeated the Confederate ironclad

ships

of

made

New

their

way

Orleans surrendered the next day.

Farragut was

made

rear admiral, the first in

ship

Tennessee,

and captured

—and

— made

his battle cry

the navy's history, and assisted in the capture of

ry

Vicksburg (1863).

throughout the North.

Promoted

In 1864, he received a mission he had long

hungered for

the capture of the defenses of

Mobile Bay, Alabama. The bay was protected by torpedo mines.

The only

operable entry

the harbor

all

defenses within the following week.

to

vice

The

victo-

Farragut famous

admiral

(1864)

and

goodwill tour of Europe as

made a commander of

the Mediterranean fleet from

1867

then to

full

admiral (1866), Farragut

channel was protected by the guns of Fort

Farragut died while visiting the

Morgan. Farragut took fourtenn wooden ships

at

80

Portsmouth,

New

Hampshire.

to 1868.

naval yard

"71

Giuseppe Garibaldi

/4.

(1807-1882)

Never before or since has there been a er

lead-

who stirred the of so many people

such as Giuseppe Garibaldi,

noble, patriotic sentiments

and united them

in

France, Garibaldi

came from

and

one cause. Born

He went of his own

sea captains.

became master years

a family of sailors

to sea in

ship by 1832.

Two

the struggle for free-

dukedoms

most of which were domi-

away through maneuver and deception.

By

the

He

yielded this position,

reward,

of an the

that

Italy

cities

who

He

from Austria

in

movement

was condemned

the

Giuseppe

by

led

revolt

failed,

to death in absentia (Latin for

"in absence") by the

government of Sardinia-

Piedmont. Garibaldi fled to South America.

and

He

fought

of Rio Grande do Sul against for

Uruguay

in

both

racial

united

except

home

island,

where he found

on the

fringes.

The

and mildly

socialist

and sexual

to Italy.

Roman

He

Rome

for

led

Republic and

weeks against

the French, Austrian, and Neapolitan armies sent against him. Realizing he could

hold the

of

his

city,

men

no longer

he escaped with several thousand

in a

daring march that caught the

imagination ol millions of Europeans.

Once briefly

again in

the

in

Garibaldi

exile.

United

States.

return to Italy in 1854, he settled

lived

Allowed

to

on Caprera,

a barren island off Sardinia. In 1859, he fought for

May over

Sardinia-Piedmont against Austria. 6,

and

1,000

his

On

1860, he sailed from Genoa with just

men,

his

famous "Redshirts."

Landing on the island of

men

used guerrilla

Sicily,

Garibaldi

tactics that

he had

Giuseppe Garibaldi

learned in South America to completely out-

81

strong-

equality. Garibaldi

died at Caprera in 1882.

helped Milan fight against Austria. In 1849, he held out heroically in

his liberal

and believed

turmoil of the European revolutions of

the troops of Mazzini's

the hero

He was

Paraguay.

1848 brought Garibaldi back

for

Garibaldi

1866.

war with

its

of

to 1876, Garibaldi served in the

ideas constantly

in

II

fought to take Venice away

Italian parliament,

ly anti-clerical

for the state

Brazil

From 1874

Garibaldi

Sicily.

thereby became king

was

then returned to his

After

and

claim to a

all

of Venice and Rome.

of millions.

Mazzini.

and

King Victor Emmanuel

to

nated to some extent by Austria. Seeking to

olutionary

had become

of I860, Garibaldi

fall

the virtual dictator of southern Italy

change

this situation, Garibaldi joined the rev-

Italian

mainland, once again driving the enemy forces

Sardinia-Piedmont,

In 1834, Italy consisted of small principalities,

Naples. Garibaldi crossed the Strait of Messina

on September 7 and fought on the

1822 and

he embarked on what would

later,

become his lifelong cause, dom and Italian unity. and

in Nice,

maneuver and defeat the 25,000-man army of

-IF

Robert

/U.

(1807-1870)

Robert E.

Lee was born

of Stratford

estate

Lee

E.

family

his

at

Westmoreland County,

in

was Henry "Light-Horse

Virginia. His father

War

Harry" Lee, a well-known Revolutionary soldier.

Lee graduated second in his

from

class

Academy at West Point. came to Lee during his service

the U.S. Military

Glory the

first

Mexican War. Serving

in

an engi-

as a scout,

and a builder of bridges, he made the

neer,

American march from Veracruz

He

possible.

Mexico City

to

received the highest possible

com-

mendation from General Winfield Scott

(see

no. 71) for his services.

The

War found Lee

of the Civil

start

sonal conflict.

He

believed in the

supreme

in per-

Union and

command

was

in tact offered the

the

Union armies by President Abraham

Lincoln's chief of

home

his

the

state

staff,

he resigned

his

Winfield Scott. After

1861,

17,

however,

commission and joined the

Confederate army. a

he

commander of Virginia. In his new

at

in

the

the end of

May

General Joe Johnston

replaced

as

general

full

Confederate armies, and

1862,

the

Army

capacity,

of Northern

his trademark.

Seven Days.

and the

He

it

Lee's

known as Pickett's Charge. Seven thousand men were lost in a half hour men whom the

South could not replace.

own by two-

actions saved the city of

services of talented subordinates such

Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson (see no. 78), Lee won impressive victories at the Second Battle of Bull Run (1862), Fredericksburg to

win

a victory

Lee pushed north twice.

fought to a standstill

at

defensive.

no. 76), but the high

on

He was

Antietam (1862). In

June 1863, he moved north again and collided

fought a grinding

Union

S.

Grant

casualties at

set

(see

The

Wilderness, Spotsylvania Court House, and

Cold Harbor did not dissuade the Union genLee was soon surrounded and besieged ring from

a 20-mile (32-km)

in

Richmond

to

Petersburg. In this confined setting. Lee's tactical brilliance

had

Lee and his

little effect.

men

broke out from the siege

the spring of 1865 but were quickly run

by the Union

(1862), and Chancellorsvilie (1863).

soil,

Lee was permanently

of battles against General Ulysses

back during the Battle of

needed

He

Union

eral.

that he

Gettysburg,

After

attacked a

as

northern

sent

on the

his quiet charisma, personal daring,

Knowing

men would him anywhere and carry the day, Lee them forward on the disastrous attack

would

Richmond. Using

Gettysburg,

at

that

contingent that outnumbered his to-one and drove

armies

Pennsylvania. Confident that his

Lee immediately

showed the breathtaking audacity

become

Union

with

follow

became

Lee

Robert E. Lee

from

of Virginia seceded

Union on April

of

at

the

ending the war.

Lee

later

Washington College

82

Lee surrendered to Grant

Appomattox Courthouse on

effectively

honor,

forces.

in

down

served

Paroled as

in Virginia.

April 9,

on

president

his

of

"70

Ulysses

/U.

(1822-1885)

Ulysses

Grant was born

S.

Grant

S.

in Point Pleasant,

Ohio. His early schooling was limited, but fine

his

horsemanship helped him win entrance

the U.S. Military

Academy

at

West

Point.

to

the Civil

War

began, Grant became a

brigadier general of volunteers in

showed both

and personal

strategic brilliance

by

resolve

Confederate

capturing

He

1861.

forts

His military success led to political success.

Grant ran

1877, Grant subtlety

favorites,

tion

Union

victory of the

War

Civil

recognition.

fell

year.

Grant went on

to

fight

oft:en

that

the

who

won

the presidency for to

lacked the diplomacy and office

Grant

required. his

political

indulged themselves in corrup-

his

second

on such hard

ly sold his

That same

easily

and scandal.

After

catapulted

"Unconditional Surrender" Grant to national

and

was deceived by many of

also

Donelson and Henry (1862), thereby opening major

for

two terms. As U.S. president from 1869

Tennessee to Union forces. This

first

and returned home the hero

of the war.

He

graduated and was commissioned a lieutenant.

When

the war. Grant gave generous terms to the

Confederates

term

ended,

Grant

financial times that he actual-

swords and souvenirs from the Civil

War. Learning he had throat cancer, Grant

the Confederates to a standstill at Shiloh, and

rushed to write his Personal Memoirs, which

he led a remarkable campaign to capture the

were published posthumously by the writer

Confederate

Mark Twain. Grant

fortress

on the eastern

The

of Vicksburg,

located

side of the Mississippi River.

surrender of Vicksburg on July 4, 1863,

time;

it

finished the

earned over $400,000 in

viding for his family after his death.

brought about great rejoicing in the North.

Grant was promoted he was given

and Union

to lieutenant general,

command

of

all

the

armies.

In the spring of 1864, Grant marched south

from Washington, D.C., seeking

to capture the

Confederate capital of Richmond, Virginia.

He

fought a

set

of grueling battles against

General Robert E. Lee

(see no.

75) at

The

Wilderness, Spotsylvania Court House, and

Cold Harbor. Having

lost

17,666 men, Grant

continued to press southward, leading news reporters in the

Grant."

North

to call

him "Butcher

Knowing he had the confidence of Abraham Lincoln, Grant continued

President

to apply vise-like pressure to the

Confederate

forces.

Grant besieged Lee the cities of

in

a

Richmond and

circle

around

Petersburg for

10 months (June 1864-April 1865).

When

Lee escaped from Richmond, Grant pursued

him

relentlessly.

Grant

at the

Lee

finally

surrendered

book

to

Ulysses S. Grant

Appomattox Courthouse, ending 83

just in

royalties, pro-

Free ebooks ==>

11 William

Sherman

T.

/ /. (1820-1891) William Tec*mseh Sherman was born Lancaster, Ohio. His birth father

him "Tec*mseh" but

in

honor of the Indian

his foster parents later gave

in

had named

him

chief,

the

first

name William. Sherman went to the U.S. Military Academy at West Point, where he graduated sixth in a

commissioned served

at

class

of forty-two.

a lieutenant

Moultrie

Fort

of

artillery,

He was and he

the

harbor of

active service

during the

in

Charleston, South Carolina.

Sherman saw no

Mexican War. Bored by peacetime army he resigned

worked

commission

his

briefly as

From 1859

in

life,

1853 and

both a banker and a lawyer.

1861, he was superintendent

to

of a military academy in Louisiana.

At the

start

commissioned

of the Civil War, Sherman was a colonel

became Grant

led a brigade at

(1861).

Sherman

a devoted friend of General Ulysses S. (see no.

76),

campaign against 1

and

Run

the First Battle of Bull

and he planned Grant's

forts

Henry and Donelson

in

862. Sherman went on to play a major role in

Grant's campaign against Vicksburg in 1863.

When

Grant was named lieutenant general of

Union Armies in 1864, Sherman succeeded him as commander of the forces in the West. The two planned a simple campaign: all

Grant would drive south against Robert E. Lee (see no. 75) and capture Richmond, while Sherman would drive east against General Joe Johnston and seize the city of Atlanta. Sherman executed a brilliant campaign. He captured Atlanta on September 2, 1864

through a

series

of intricate maneuvers rather

than head-on fighting. a brutal approach to

He

then decided on

end the war. Sherman

telegraphed Grant on October 9, 1864, saying, "I

William

Sherman

T.

the

can make the march, and make Georgia

howl." sixty

He was

thousand

true to his word.

men

km) wide swath

Sherman

led

in a broad, 50-mile (80-

southeast to the sea, burning

or destroying everything of value in sight. This

(November 16-December 22, 1864) ended with Sherman in Savannah. He then marched north and, as infamous "March to the Sea"

the Confederacy crumbled, accepted the sur-

render of General Johnston

North Carolina

Sherman

Durham,

near

1865.

in April

rose to lieutenant general (1866),

then

full

general (1869),

and he served

eral

in

chief of the

army (1869-1883).

He

retired

New

then

and went York

to live in St. Louis

He

City.

for

complex man, Sherman his

high

temper,

made

84

is

to the graduating class

Academy

in

is

generous

fimous statement that "war Military

and

vigorously refused a

Republican nomination for president

A

as gen-

1879.

in

1884.

remembered nature,

hell,

"

and

which he

of the Michigan

"in

Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson

/O.

(1824-1863)

Both

and

Ufetime

his

in

Thomas Jonathan

afterward,

had

"Stonewall" Jackson

General

been a source of pride and the making oi a

the

He was born in Clarksburg, Virginia, in what is now West Virginia. He received little

pressure

myth.

early

and

education

was

fortunate

West Point when space opened up

at

after

another applicant declined to enter. Jackson

graduated entered

1846,

and he

Mexican

War

in

the

immediately a

as

second

Shields

on June

Shenandoah Valley region and

on

Richmond

was

He

Run.

Bull

at

from Veracruz

Mexico City

to

Returning to the United

commission

in

the important battles

1851

States,

after

1847.

in

he resigned his

an altercation with

the

in

the Second Battle of

captured

Harper's

September 1862. Promoted eral,

of

capital

instrumental

Ferry

in

to lieutenant gen-

he took part in the defensive victory

at

Fredericksburg (1862).

The Batde of Chancellorsville all

These

relieved the

Confederate

the

Confederate victory

lieutenant.

Jackson served in

9.

that spring.

Jackson

to

Academy

be admitted to the U.S. Military

Thomas

Confederate victories drew 60,000 troops into

was

Jackson's

and

no. 75) masterpiece.

Robert

May

1863

Lee's

(see

in

E.

Outnumbered two-to-one

by Union general Joseph Hooker, Lee held

Hooker

at

bay with a mere shadow force while

superior officer at Fort Meade, Florida.

Jackson swooped around Hooker's right flank

Jackson then obtained a position teaching phi-

with

and hit him with a devastating counterattack. The Union flank reeled, and the Confederates were on their way to a decisive victory when Jackson was hit by bullets from his own troops. They had mistaken him for a Union officer as he rode back to his own lines. His left arm

of

shattered, Jackson sought to recuperate, but

his

losophy and military

tactics

the Virginia

at

Military Institute.

During the

Civil

War, Jackson remained

a

firm believer in the Union until Virginia seced-

ed on April 17, 1861. the

He

then cast his

Confederacy and became

a

lot

colonel

the Virginia state forces. At the First Battle of

pneumonia

Bull Run, Confederate General Bernard E. Bee

1863.

rallied his

men

at a critical

ing to Jackson's fortitude

crying out, "There

is

moment by

on the

set

in

and he died on

point-

battlefield

and

Jackson, standing like a

stone wall! Let us determine to die here, and

we

will

conquer."

The nickname

"Stonewall"

Jackson stuck, but the irony was that Jackson

became

far

better

known

for

the lightning

speed of his maneuvers than for standing

fast

in position.

Promoted

to the

Jackson

general,

rank of Confederate major created

the

"Stonewall

Brigade." Between April and June of 1862,

he

won

a

remarkable string of victories in

his

famous Shenandoah Valley campaign. Jackson defeated General Robert Milroy

on

May

8,

General Nathaniel Banks on May 23 and 25, General John C. Fremont on June 8, and

"Stonewall" Jackson

85

May

10,

-in

Geronimo

/y.

(1829-1909)

His Indian name was Goyathlay, meaning

who yawns." Geronimo was born in No-Doyohn Canyon, in present-day New

"he

Mexico. His people, the Chiricahua Apache,

had a long tradition of fighting Spanish and

Mexican troops from the south.

Geronimo was admitted Council of Warriors in point in his er,

came

life

his

tribe's

The turning when his moth-

in 1858,

and children were

wife,

to

1846.

killed in a surprise

attack near Janos, Chihuahua. Swearing eternal

Geronimo

vengeance,

The

Mexico.

Mexicans to tion.

in

upon

call

Jerome

St.

for protec-

Their utterances of "Jerome, Jerome" led

name "Geronimo."

to the Indian warrior's

U.S.

meanwhile, had encroached

settlers,

on Apache land from

A

number of raids

led a

ferocity of his attacks caused the

north and

the

was established

reservation

east.

in the eastern

part of the Arizona territory for the

Apache

nation. Finding himself confined to a small

Geronimo broke

locality,

he and the majority of

the peace. In 1876,

the San Carlos Reservation

to

River.

land,

The Apaches detested and Geronimo led settlements

U.S.

against

U.S.

this

on the Gila attacks

the

territory.

him and conduct

a

war against the

Miles led 5,000 U.S. soldiers and some 500 Indian auxiliary troops in a year-long search for

Geronimo. The U.S.

settlers.

George Crook

in

to

U.S.

general

January 1884. After being

returned to the San Carlos reservation, he fled

with 35 men, 8 boys, and 101

women

in

May

1885. Again he conducted raids, against both

was

was replaced by General Nelson Miles.

to leave the reser-

Geronimo surrendered

U.S.

Geronimo

barren waste-

guerrilla in

Hundreds of Apaches chose vation with

moved

people were

his

Apache

rendered

cornered by General Crook and sur-

at

Canon de Los Embudos

Mexico, on March 27,

in Sonora,

1886. As the U.S.

to

forces finally tracked the

his

to his Arizona

The

his fellow warriors

They were transferred Oklahoma Territory in 1894.

forced to do hard labor. to Fort Sill in the

to the

Geronimo

he died of pneumonia

bolted

as

they

result

of

As

a

this

escape.

border.

General Crook

Geronimo and

were taken to Florida and

others

U.S.

Sonora

homeland.

pledge was broken.

States,

the

the

on September 3, 1886, promising would eventually be allowed to return

United

neared

in

to surrender

that he

troops took their prisoners

on a march Geronimo and a few

camp

mountains. There, Miles persuaded Geronimo

and Mexican settlements. Geronimo

finally

leader

dictated his autobiography before in

1909.

The Apache

warrior had never been allowed to return to Arizona.

86

Chief Joseph (1840-1904)

Born

Wallowa Valley (present-day

the

in

Oregon), Chief Joseph's Native American

name Nez

Hinmaton

was

rolling

the

in

he became a chief after U.S.

1863,

the

Pacific

government negotiated

U.S.

Nez

a treaty that confined the

Lapwai Reservation

Perce to the

present-day Idaho),

(in

removing them from their lands near the shores of the Pacific Ocean.

ward,

the

Nez

two groups: the

"treaty"

From

were

Perce

that day for-

divided

and "non-treaty."

which refused

General

to be con-

meet with the Nez Perce Lapwai

to

at the council at Fort

of 1877.

in the spring

He and

Nez

cleverly

the

Nez

men

they foiled

that

Joseph

commenced negotiations when a small band of Nez Perce murdered four white settlers. The negotiations ended, and the Nez Perce War began, despite the best efforts of Howard and Joseph led

his

on October

1877,

5,

A

total

of 431 Nez Perce were taken

ing 87 Indian warriors. his

later

years,

led approximately

Mountains and

A well-known

and he sent numerous

the

al

homeland. They were refused.

Washington

state.

River,

seeking the safety of "Grandmother Victoria's"

Canada

the land ruled by

Queen

Victoria

of England.

Along

the

march,

General John Gibbon

(Wisdom

River,

defeated

Joseph

at the Battle

Montana) and

of Big Hole also

won

encounters such as the Cottonwood skirmish

and the

Battle

of Canyon Creek.

September, Joseph and

his

people

By

figure in

He

late

Chief Joseph

reached

87

to

his trib-

died

Nespelim on the Colville Reservation,

to elude the

Missouri

as pris-

petitions

Washington, D.C., asking to return to

750 men, women, and march over the Rocky

across

and

Joseph survived his time in

U.S. troops and reach the safety of Canada.

He

but U.S.

his surrender.

White Bird Canyon. Far

children in a grueling

More

Chief Joseph made

from exultant over the win, Joseph persuaded

march

trenches

soldiers arrived over the next five days,

band of three hundred war-

his fellow chiefs to begin a

in

attacks,

all

Perce had been stopped.

the chief

riors to a victory at

350

Perce and attacked

them. Joseph arranged his so

prison,

Howard went

Oliver

troopers found the

oners to Fort Leavenworth in Kansas, includ-

fined to any reservation area.

U.S.

alry

into

Chief Joseph became the leader of the "nontreaty" population,

Montana; they

the east. General Nelson A. Miles and

the

to

in

Unbeknownst to Joseph, another U.S. cavgroup had entered Montana from

a

chief

1840s and 1850s.

the

in

Indian

his father died.

flocked

settlers

Northwest region In

The son of

(NAY-per-SAY)

Perce

("thunder

Yalaktit

heights").

Paw Mountains

the Bear

were a mere 40 miles (64 km) south of the Canadian border.

at

in

Free ebooks ==> ni Paul von 0 I. (1847-1934) Born

Hindenburg

in Posen, Prussia (present-

von

day Poznan,

Poland),

Paul

Hindenburg's

family

traced

German

to

roots

Teutonic

its

the era of the

Hindenburg

Knights.

entered the Prussian cadet corps in

1858 and fought

as a lieutenant at

important Battle of Sadowa

the

against Austria in

He won

1866.

the Iron Cross for bravery in the

Franco-Prussian

War and

repre-

sented his regiment at the signing

of the Treaty of Versailles (1871). Elevated to the Prussian general staff in

1878, Hindenburg served

with merit. In 1903, he was promoted to

lieu-

Paul von Hindenburg

{left)

tenant general. Hindenburg retired from the

army

in

1911 and went to Hanover.

When World War Hindenburg asked tant field

for

began

I

and received an impor-

command, defending

against the invasion of

Hindenburg

East Prussia

two Russian armies.

teamed

with

Ludendorff, his chief of staff

von

Erich

The two were

and methodical, while Ludendorff was

lightning-quick and sometimes rash.

men masterminded Russians

field

The two

brilliant victories over the

and ran

He was

Republic. erate

The

German

still

people.

for president

elected

of the Weimar

and served

as a

mod-

and judicious head of state from 1926

to

1934.

Hindenburg of his

By 1915, Hindenburg was a field marshal and commander-in-chief on the German east-

to

life

met

—Adolf

shape events.

Hindenburg

the

challenge

final

—when he was too

Hitler

The Nazi

in the

old

leader ran against

1932 presidential

elections.

another impressive victory

Even though Hindenburg won, he had

to

Lodz, and in August 1916 he replaced Erich

accept Hitler as chancellc)r of the Reich

in

ern front.

He won

von Falkenhayn al

in authority.

In 1925, he accepted an effort to draft his services

Lakes.

at

Hindenburg

marshal presided quietly over the end of

highly regarded by the

Tannenberg and the Masurian

at

the tide

1918, Ludendorff

in

the war in 1919 and retired to his estate,

a

remarkable military duo. Hindenburg was cautious

went against Germany resigned, leaving

When

Germany.

the Allies against

1914,

in

staff

as chief of the Prussian gener-

January 1933. Hitler ran the nation during the last year of

Von Hindenburg and Ludendorff

joined forces again. Kaiser

something of

Wilhelm

a figurehead as the

II

became

two military

Hindenburg's

name and

life.

He

men masterminded Germany's moves from

Nazi movement, acting

1916

values espoused by

to 1918.

The two

soldiers

made

at least

one

clear

used

men

as

if

the old Prussian

such

as

stood behind the Nazi regime. In

they did

to

demon-

death

in

1934.

not, but

marine warfare caused the United States

strate this reality prior to his

88

Hindenburg fact,

Hindenburg was unable

blunder: their decision to use unrestricted subto join

Hindenburg's

reputation to lend credence to the

nn

Heihachiro Togo

O/.

(1848-1934)

The

greatest Japanese naval leader of

mod-

ern times was born in Kyushu, Japan. Raised

turmoil

created

modore Oliver H.

Perry's

amidst

the

of Japan

"opening

up"

Heihachiro Togo

West,

the

to

com-

by U.S.

joined the Satsuma provincial navy in 1866.

Four years

new

he entered the

later,

imperial

Japanese navy as a cadet and went to England seven years ol training in

for

He

(1871-1878).

naval

tactics

made

it

a

point to travel to Cape Trafalgar to see the

of his hero's greatest

victory.

Togo supervised the building of the Yamoto, one of Japan's first modern warships, and he served as

its

international British

commander. He created an

first

stir

by

steamer

Japanese-Chinese

upon and sinking

firing

during

the

War

1894.

in

Straits.

a

of the

start

The

British

A

at

the

came August 27 of Tshushima

Battle

large Russian fleet

had

the Baltic Sea to the Sea of Japan.

but better-armed Japanese

fleet

Togo boats,

lost

only 117

while

killing

Togo was not reprimanded

and capturing the

Togo began heading

the

of the new naval base

at

title

generally believed.

less efficient

When

Togo remained one of the most revered in

Japan until

first

Japanese

honored with

his

man

death in 1934.

a national funeral.

1899. In

China

than was

war between Russia

flag

aboard the ship Mikasa.

Following orders from his high

Togo

fired the first shots

command,

of the Russo-Japanese

War, sending torpedo boats into the harbor of Port Arthur to attack the Russian ships there

on February Harbor,

this

the Japanese,

6,

1904.

Foreshadowing

sneak attack gave the

who

Pearl

initiative to

never relinquished

it

during

the war. Togo's naval blockade of Port Arthur

and Vladivostok secured communications between the Japanese home islands and the war efforts in

Heihachiro Togo

Korea and Manchuria.

89

leaders

He was

the

not of the royal lineage to be

and Japan became imminent in 1903, Togo was made commander-in-chief of the Imperial Navy, flying his

fleet

made a marquis (1934). He did not serve in World War I, but the men who did had been his pupils. Made a permanent member ol the Imperial General Staff,

for his

police actions ot the Boxer Rebellion in

count

(1913); he was also

1900, he observed the Russian ships during the

and concluded they were

a

admiral of the

Advanced Naval in

soldiers

The hero of the war, Togo was made (1907) and given the

made commander Sasebo

torpedo

entire Russian fleet.

action.

College in 1896 and was

smaller

completely

men and three 4,830 enemy

ship was found to be carrying Chinese troops; therefore,

from

sailed

The

outmaneuvered and defeated the Russians.

admired Admiral

greatly

Horatio Nelson (see no. 66) and

site

Togo's greatest triumph

and 28, 1905,

Free ebooks ==>

no Ferdinand Foch (1851-1929)

Od. Known

for

audacity and belief in a

his

relendess offense, Ferdinand

Foch was born

in Tarbes, Hautes-Pyrenees, France.

He studied

Ecole Pol)T:echnique and became a lieu-

at the

tenant of artillery in 1873. Foch believed in the rules

of war established by Napoleon

(see no.

67), but he failed to appreciate the difference that

machine guns and trench warfare would

make on

the batdefield in the future.

Foch was already a general when World War I

He led his men in an inspired defense Gond area during the critical Battle

began.

of the

St.

of the Marne (September 6-9, 1914). During the "race to the sea" that followed the Marne,

he

won

the admiration of General Joseph Joffre

of France,

who became

Foch north

his patron. Joffre sent

to coordinate

movements of

the

French, British, and Belgian armies, no small

and

task given their differences in language

temperament.

Foch commanded the northern army group during 1915 and 1916. his allies for his

He was

criticized

by

troop allotments during the

German gas attack at Ypres, and he failed to make any noticeable gains during the Somme campaign (1916). The lowest point of Foch's career came when Joffre was removed from overall command, but Foch bounced back to prominence when Joffre's replacement was himself replaced by General Henri Petain (see no. 84). Foch

became chief of the general

staff

Germany made an enormous the deadlock early in 1918. in the allied line,

combined

to establish his

effort to break

During

a collapse

French and British leaders

name Foch

"generalissimo" of the

Belgium and the United

forces.

States followed suit,

lion

American

effort.

soldiers

in the relationship,

fact that the

were

tremendous

making Foch the supreme

commander for the rest of the war. The German attacks faltered in June, and by

table.

allied

Line on

offensives

the

July Foch was

on

the offensive everywhere.

frequently

with

General

He

John

Pershing of the United States. Foch wanted

war

broke the

that

German border and to the

peace

Foch himself dictated the terms of the

to the Germans in Compiegne on November

armistice at

two mil-

essential to the

Foch planned and coordinated the

Siegfried

was sweet

satisfaction for the

a

railway car

11,

1918.

It

man who had

witnessed his nation's defeat in the FrancoPrussian

War 48

years earlier.

Foch was disappointed by the Treaty of

allied

disagreed

dominance

but he had to accept the

brought the German diplomats

in 1917.

agreed to

Ferdinand Foch

Versailles;

he believed

Germans. He made in

it

was too

a tour

soft

1921 and received numerous honors from

various countries prior to his death.

90

on the

of the United States

n/|

Henri Philippe Petain

04.

(1856-1951)

First a great

hero and then a tragic collabo-

Henri Petain came

rator,

much of

symbolize

to

what was both noble and perverse

France

in

during the two world wars.

He St.

Cyr

in 1887.

by

named premier of France

Rather than

The French army was demorWar

an

flee to

allied

coun-

try or urge a fight to the death, Petain signed

Germans.

He was

treaty,

with the

allowed to govern the unoc-

cupied zone of France.

defeat in the Franco-Prussian

its

16.

an armistice, and then a peace

graduated from the military academy at

alized

retirement and was

on June

Petain

earned

contempt,

the

and even

of 1870; the French people wanted revenge,

hatred, of many people during his time as chief

and military thinking

of the Vichy government (1940-1944).

at the

time emphasized a

He

vigorous offense by infantrymen. Petain dis-

urged his countrymen to quietly endure the

agreed with this notion, which was one reason

Nazi occupation

he had risen only to colonel by the time World

people yearned to join the Resistance move-

War

began in 1914.

I

ment.

Petain

at a

and

time

his

when many French

fellow

collaborators

1914,

helped the Germans find labor conscripts in

new emphasis on

careful planning

France, and thousands of French Jews were

and defensive fighting gained

favor, Petain rose

turned over to the Nazis.

French offensives stumbled badly and, as a

in leadership.

He became

in

1916

a full general in

and then commander of the Second Army. In February 1916, Petain was

named commander

of the French forces defending the

fortress

Verdun against the Germans. Petain troops, "/A ne passeront pas" pass"),

sides

and he was

as

good

("They

as his

of

After the Allies

was

won World War

tried, convicted,

President Charles

sentence to

life

and sentenced

De

Gaulle

not

word. Both

suffered tremendous losses during the

six-month

but the French held their

battle,

positions.

In

May

1917, Petain became commander-

in-chief of the French army.

He was

passed

over by General Ferdinand Foch (see no. 83) for

supreme

remained

allied

commander

in charge

in 1918, but

he

of the French army until

the end of the war.

A

hero to his countrymen, Petain served

briefly as a minister

ambassador

to Spain

of war and then as an

between World War

I

and

World War II. He urged the construction of the Maginot Line to defend France; the line was never completed, leaving France vulnerable to an attack through Belgium.

In

May

1940,

struck at France. (especially

their

Adolf

Hitler's

The speed of tanks)

won

forces

their offense

the battle over

Henri Phillipe Petain

France within the month. Petain came out of

91

Petain

to death.

commuted

imprisonment.

told his shall

II,

the

nr John Pershing (1860-1948)

OU.

America's military leader in

came from

the

Missouri. John Pershing worked

farm and taught

Academy

at

West

on

still

the U.S. Military

to

and he graduated

Point,

senior cadet captain in

I

his father's

country school while

at a

He went

in his teens.

World War

hamlet of Laclede,

prairie

as

886.

1

Pershing became a cavalry lieutenant.

He

fought against Geronimo

(see no.

Apache nation and

fought against the

also

79) of the

Sioux nation during his early military years.

then

Pershing

taught

military

the

University of Nebraska

He

demonstrated

tactics

at

(1893-1897).

valor in the Spanish-

his

American War and won

a Silver Star for gal-

lantry in combat.

Pershing

served

(1901-1903) and

the

Philippines

official

U.S. observer

in

an

as

War (1904-1905).

during the Russo-Japanese

Deeply impressed by Pershing's president

from captain

to

brigadier general

bypassing 862 senior three

more

was sent

He

reports, U.S.

Theodore Roosevelt promoted him

and then

years in the Philippines

to the

1906,

in

Pershing served

officers.

Mexican border

in 1915.

pursued the Mexican

John Pershing

revolutionary

Made

Francisco "Pancho" Villa into Mexican territo-

Returning from the

ry.

commander

named

Expeditionary States

sent

World War

to

American

the

which

Force, the

Pershing was

foray,

of

European

United

the

battlefields

in

visit

saw the creation and deployment of a two-million-person U.S. Army. His cial

battles

of Belleau

Thierry, stopping the

men won

Wood

last

the cru-

and Chateau

German

offensive.

Pershing coordinated a huge U.S. offensive in

I.

Pershing arrived in France in June 1917,

and

a full general in 1917, Pershing over-

his presence

allowed Charles E. Stanton to

the

Named

the grave of the Marquis de Lafayette and

declare, "Lafayette,

we

are here,"

on July

4,

Meuse-Argonne

area in the last weeks of

the war.

of the armies

general

Pershing returned

home

to

in

tremendous

1919, praise

1917. Determined to keep U.S. troops togeth-

from the U.S. public and government.

er as a separate army, Pershing clashed loudly

hoped

and often with both Their

calls

unheeded;

for

the

British

him

to

grim,

remained the leader of Europe.

and French be

leaders.

replaced

effective

went

Pershing

his nation's forces in

1920 but was not, so he in

1924 and served

as

retired

for the rest of his

Pershing died in Washington, D.C., and

was buried

92

horn the army

chairperson oi the Battle

Monuments Commission life.

He

to be asked to run for the prcsidenc}' in

at

Arlington National Cemetery.

Free ebooks ==>

nn

Bernard Montgomery

OD.

(1887-1976)

Known

"Monty"

as

to his soldiers, Bernard

Law Montgomery compiled accomplishments during half

long

a

list

of

a century in the

Montgomery graduated from the Royal Military Academy in 1908 and was British army.

commissioned

War

after

he was wounded.

Montgomery

command

and was

rose to major general

immediately

in

British-held

World War

transferred

He

II.

France,

to

where he evacuated the Third Division out of Dunkirk

1940.

in

He

and defeat

into

troops

German

their

that

could meet

mand

Montgomery

Winston

to take

com-

of the British troops in Africa. Taking

charge after Britain's loss of Tobruk to General

Erwin Rommel of Germany

Montgomery remained on first.

He

built

up

(see

no.

94),

the defensive at

a formidable strike force in

Egypt. After Rommel's attacks failed to penetrate the British perimeter,

on the

offensive.

The

of

ders,

first

inflicted

ing

major

no. 91).

the

war.

execution

Arnhem

in

been

earned

him

and promotion

criticized

spared

no

Americans

for

this

opportunity

Sicily in 1943.

chief of the Imperial General Staff

the

He

later

Montgomery went

Atlantic Treaty Organization

(NATO). What

had begun

between the two

men

as a friendly rivalry

escalated over the years into a bitter rela-

tionship, as each lambasted the other in his

memoirs of the war est

years. Certainly the great-

British general of the twentieth century,

Montgomery

lacked

the

tact

and subtlety

for positions that required close coordination

with

allied forces.

resulting Battle of El

to lull general.

led the British

selected

ground commander of

the European invasion force,

but the position of supreme to

chastise

Montgomery was raised to field marshal when the war ended he became

and North Africa knighthood a

commander went

Having

(1944), and

Montgomery's

He was

to

lost.

Montgomery

of the Bulge (December 1944).

troops in the Allied invasion ol

as the

loss,

at six

for their initial defeats in the Battle

loss in the field

Montgomery

comman-

September, where

thousand airborne troops were

preparation in

allied

first.

between

Montgomery's planning went awry

on the Germans dur-

meticulous

grew

notably U.S. general George Patton (see

Alamein (October 1942) was the

progress at

resentment

served as deputy to Eisenhower at the North

counterparts.

In August 1942, Prime Minister

Churchill selected

at

made slow

1944)

6,

Montgomery and some of the

began a program

of intensive training for his men, aimed turning them

(June

Feelings

the Battle ol

of a division

Palestine at the start of

was

World

and received the Distinguished Service

I

Order in

He

an infantry lieutenant.

as

served in France and Belgium during

Dwight D. Eisenhower of the United States. The British, U.S., Canadian, and Australian units that landed in Normandy on D-Day

Bernard Montgomery

General

93

Ma

Douglas

n~i

/. (1880-1964) MacArthur was

Douglas

army barracks father

was

in Little

born

in

an

Rock, Arkansas. His

and MacArthur never

a general,

considered any career other than the military.

He

graduated

first

his

in

class

at

the U.S.

the

attack

on

After

1941).

Harbor (December

Pearl

a

effort

futile

to

7,

defend the

left, vowing "I shall return." MacArthur became supreme commander of the southwest Pacific ground forces in April

archipelago, he

Academy at West Point in 1903 and entered the army corps of engineers. A major when World War I began, he led the famous 42nd "Rainbow" Division and was twice wounded. Promoted to brigadier general

war continued

after

the use of the atomic

by the end of the war, he then served

bomb, he would have

led Operation Downfall,

Military

as the

youngest superintendent ever of West Point

(1919-1923). MacArthur's

and

career were inextrica-

his

father

MacArthur came

He then served Army. He officially

tour of duty there in the 1920s. as chief

retired

of staff of the U.S.

from the army

in

1937 and went

to the

Philippines as a military adviser.

The

start

of World

War

back on active duty on the

II

islands.

His

air force

was stricken by the Japanese only hours

the

the projected invasion of the Japanese main-

He had

the satisfaction of accepting the

Japanese surrender aboard the

(September

USS

Missouri

2, 1945).

As supreme commander of the Allied occu-

from

of Japan

pation

MacArthur held

1945

vast power,

with judgment and

skill.

1951,

to

which he used

MacArthur

estab-

lished a liberal democracy, abolished the nobility,

saw MacArthur

Had

the Philippines in 1944, as promised.

had served before him.

to love the islands during a

led U.S. troops in the "island

hopping" campaigns that brought him back to

land. life

bly intertwined with the Philippine Islands,

where

1942. After taking steps to protect Australia

from invasion, he

and revived Japanese

recovery process that

industry, starting the

would make Japan

into

an economic superpower by the 1980s.

When the Korean War command of the

after

given

broke out, he was U.S.

and United

Nations forces that were defending South Korea. brilliant

MacArthur planned and executed

a

and daring amphibious landing

at

Inchon behind the

lines

movement and he vowed to chase troops. His

China

the North Koreans into

itself

MacArthur's belief in premature.

MacArthur

called

to use nuclear refused. After feelings

final victory

China intervened

and hurled the U.S.

his

of the North Korean

led to a wholesale rout,

in

proved

the

war

forces back southward.

on President Harry Truman

weapons

if

necessary;

MacArthur proceeded

about the war public,

Truman make Truman

to

removed him from command on April

11,

1951. MacArthur then returned to the United

Douglas MacArthur

States, which he had not seen World War II.

94

since the start of

nn

William Halsey,

00.

(1882-1959)

Jr.

Wake

attacked the Japanese at

Island early in

1942. Even more important for U.S. morale,

he brought the

USS Hornet

James Doolittle launched

from the aerial

within 800 miles

km) of Japan. Lieutenant Colonel

(1,287

his

B-25 bombers

deck and led the

aircraft carrier's

bombing of Tokyo on

first

April 18, 1942. As

the United States rallied from the destruction

became

ol Pearl Harbor, Halsey

a

household

him "Bull." In October 1942, Halsey was named commander of the South Pacific Force and promoted to full admiral that November. He word; newspapers began to

call

defeated the Japanese in key naval battles off the island of Guadalcanal. His victories there

momentum

gave the

United

the

in

Pacific

to

the

States.

Halsey rose to commander of the Third Fleet

and the Western

He

1944.

the

inland

enemy

an

against

Pacific

directed

Task Forces in

first

carrier

flight

the Philippines and supported

William Halsey, William "Bull" Halsey,

Jr.

Jr.

Navy

many of the most important battles of World War II. Halsey was the son of a naval officer. He graduated from the U.S. Naval Academy at Annapolis (1904) and sailed board Halsey

White

Fleet" as a

commanded

(see no. 87).

His most controversial battle was in Leyte

I

midshipman.

destroyers in

fleet to

enter the

gulf and attack U.S. ships there. Despite being

convoy

drawn away, Halsey directed

his planes in the

and was awarded the Navy Cross. After

After this rocky start to the battle, the United

groups of

North Atlantic

in

a specialist in torpedo warfare, he

commanded groups

of destroyers, and then

aircraft carriers,

and 1930s.

He

also

at

the age

won

When World War

II

began, Halsey was

command of the aircraft carUSS Enterprise. Away from Pearl Harbor,

a vice-admiral in

he escaped the Japanese attack of December

most impressive naval victory of

Halsey directed his

on Okinawa, and again

at

fleet in

the Japanese

The

it

the carrier attack

his planes struck again

mainland,

and

including

Japanese surrender was conducted

aboard his flagship, the

USS Missouri,

was General MacArthur who

although

led the U.S.

delegation.

Promoted

7,

to defend in the Pacific, he

the

the war.

Tokyo.

of fifty-two.

Not content

States

during the 1920s

attended flight school,

earning the wings of a naval aviator

1941.

allowed the main Japanese

attack and they sank four Japanese carriers.

becoming

rier

Gulf (1944). Halsey was lured away fiom the battle area by a decoy Japanese force. This

World

escort duty across the

War

in

the invasion

of the islands by General Douglas MacArthur

led the U.S.

in

the "Great

attack

station

retired

95

to fleet admiral in 1945, Halsey

from the navy

in

1947.

Yamamoto

nn isoruku (1884-1943)

00.

The sixth son of a school principal, Isoruku Yamamoto was born in Nagoaka, Honshu,

He

Japan.

Academy

graduated from the Imperial Naval

in

1904 and entered the navy

for the Russo-Japanese in

the

in

time

was wounded

of Tsushima

Battle

critical

He

War.

Straits

(1905).

Yamamoto States

naval

spent four years in the United

(1919-1921 attache.

He

and

1925—1927)

recognized

a

as

awesome

the

potential of American industry, but he believed that in a conflict, the moral superiority ot the

Japanese would prevail.

Yamamoto command-

ed the carrier Akagi (1928-1929) and was given

1933.

command of Carrier Division One in He served as navy minister (1936-1938)

and became chief of the Combined

Fleet in

1939.

As war with the United likely,

Yamamoto

of the Japanese high preemptive

strike.

States

became more

members

pressed his fellow

command

Believing

blow would disable the U.S.

to consider a

that

fleet

one

swift

and devastate

American morale, Yamamoto developed the plans for the surprise attack

on

His policy seemed vindicated attack

on

Pearl

Isoruku Yamamoto

Pearl Harbor. at first.

Harbor (December

7,

The

1941)

a

crucial

moment,

was followed by the capture of the Philippines

decks of their

and the Japanese conquest of much of south-

were

east Asia.

Yamamoto was

nervous, however,

bombardment of the Japanese mainland, and he decided on a second great attack that would eliminate the U.S. Navy from the Pacific Ocean. Yamamoto left Japanese waters with the bulk of the navy in May 1942. Unaware over the possibility of a U.S.

that the U.S. military

had

just

succeeded

in

carriers.

of the

his cause was now hopeYamamoto continued the fight. He made a mistake in allowing Japan to

less,

be dragged into the fight for the island of

Guadalcanal;

sent to intercept him.

The

Battle of

met

Midway

(June 1942) could have gone either way, but

at

precious

Japanese

were soon consumed by the

battle.

resources

Yamamoto

flew to the area to inspect the fight for the

plane was shot

carriers

carriers

seas.

Solomon

and attacked by two groups of U.S.

Four Japanese

Although he knew

Yamamoto steamed toward Midway

disperse the U.S. there. Instead, he was

caught

fighters

ending Japans domination

lost that day,

breaking the Japanese communications code, Island to

U.S.

hundreds of Japanese planes refueling on the

Islands,

but

he

down by

died

when

his

U.S. fighters over

the Shortland Islands. Brilliant and devoted to his nation's cause,

made

Yamamoto had

strategic errors that

nevertheless

brought Japan

to the

brink of disaster by the time ot his death.

96

nn

Chester Nimitz

uU.

(1885-1966)

Born

Fredericksburg,

in

Texas,

Chester

Nimitz worked from the age of eight and want-

Academy

ed to attend the U.S. Military

West

Point. Faihng to reaHze that goal, he

Academy

to the U.S. Naval

graduated seventh in his

at

Annapolis and

to

the

Philippines

Nimitz

and commanded

the

destroyer

USS

ran

aground,

and he was court-martialed

and found

reprimand,

a

Nimitz's

ship

Remarkably, Nimitz was

guilty.

off with

let

Decatur.

Okinawa

in

his

stations,

first

Submarine

he stayed at his

fray,

Pearl

at

Nimitz served

as chief

to 1947,

I.

ambassador

for

the

commanded

became

II

Secretary

Knox was

on Verba Buena

Island in San Francisco Bay.

died

at

the naval station

and became

began, Nimitz was

Nimitz to the Fleet. In

on navigation

matters.

so impressed that he sent

Pacific as admiral

of the Pacific

1942, Nimitz rose to the rank of com-

mander-in-chief of the Pacific Ocean areas. As such, he was the equal of

manders

in the

two other high com-

—Dwight D.

Eisenhower

war

and Douglas MacArthur Nimitz positioned

(see no. 87).

his carrier fleet to take

advantage of the Japanese attack in 1942.

or

He won

disabling

Midway

that desperate battle, sinking

four

November 1943, he line

at

Japanese

carriers.

In

directed a new, shorter

of attack across the Pacific that caught the

Japanese defenders flat-footed. Fie supported

General

MacArthur's

invasion

of

Philippines (1944) and was in overall

mand

retired

He

called to the office of the secretary of the navy.

After consulting Nimitz

good-

Nations

(1949-1952), but he never formally

chief of the Naval Bureau of Navigation.

WTien World War

on

from the navy.

a rear admiral,

a battleship division,

later a

United

During the long period between

the two world wars, he

later

of naval operations

and he was

Force of the U.S. Atlantic Fleet throughout

World War

command

Harbor, and

Guam.

will

Command

He

choices or initiative during the battles. Keeping

by saved.

chief of staff to the

as

chose to allow

Spruance, to conduct the battles.

from 1945

use of diesel engines. Nimitz was

He

not want his presence to hinder their

watch over the

and the career

After 1908, Nimitz specialized in the devel-

and then gave them

commanders, William Halsey and

of the future leader of the U.S. Navy was there-

opment and

1945. Nimitz chose his subordi-

latitude as he could.

fleet

did

Iwo Jima and

to capture

nates with great care

much

Raymond

1905.

class in

After two years of routine duty,

went

at

went

went on

naval forces

the

comChester Nimitz

during the battles of Pacific Sea (June

1944) and Leyte Gulf (October 1944). His

97

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George Patton

ni 0

(1885-1945)

.

1

Born Patton,

San Gabriel, California, George

in Jr.,

He

military leaders.

attended Virginia Military

Institute

before going to

Academy

at

West

Military

graduated in 1909

as a cavalry lieutenant.

chance to obtain recognition

first

came when he served Pershing

the U.S.

He

Point.

and was commissioned Patton's

S.

was the grandson of Confederate

no.

(see

General John

as aide to

85)

in

chase

the

Mexican revolutionary Pancho

after

Patton

Villa.

personally cornered and killed one of Villa's

subordinates.

Patton went with Pershing to Europe in

1917 and served

as the

commanding

the general's headquarters. the

He

also

officer

of

was one of

named to enter the new tanks World War I. Patton was

first officers

corps created late in

wounded

the

in

Meuse-Argonne

offensive

(1918).

As World War

moted

command

given

He

II

approached, he was pro-

to two-star general (1941). Patton was

landings

of the

First

Armored Corps.

a

prominent

role

in

North

Africa

played

the Allied

in

After the Battle of Kasserine Pass, he was

commander of Ordered

the Second

by German

practiced

fare

Rommel

(see no. 94),

tioner of the

He

same

made

Armored Corps. mobile war-

to find a solution to the

Patton became a practi-

Sicily in thirty-eight days,

he was near the height of

brought criticism

his career

to himself aft:er

and

when he

he slapped a

The man was

U.S. soldier in a hospital.

gy

was malingering but

an apolo-

later issued

for his action.

Patton became

Army with

his

commander of

men

at

Normandy and

the Third

He

landed

led the

famous

England (March 1944).

in

"breakout" that equaled any of the blitzkrieg

campaigns

in

gas

and

its

German

audacity. Patton led

all

the

way

Paris, before

to

Nancy and

running out of

supplies.

During the

Battle of the Bulge

(December

1944), Patton raced northward with the Third relieved the key city ol Bastogne,

doomed

the

German

and

offensive. Patton's troops

crossed the Rhine River in

March 1945, and he

entered Czechoslovakia by the time the war

ended.

Named

recov-

ering from shell shock; Patton claimed the soldier

Metz, bypassing

Army,

art.

and troops

his tanks

Erwin

general

led the Allied invasion that cleared the

Germans from

George Patton

1942.

in

military governor of Bavaria, Patton

proved completely unsuited to such an admin-

He

openly

istrative

post.

Germans

to the Soviets

like to

Due

the

campaign against Russia

in the future.

to these intemperate statements, Patton

was removed from

Army

command

of the Third

that October. Patton died in Heidelberg,

Germany,

98

preferred

and hinted he would

after

an auto accident

later that year.

Chiang Kai-shek

no

(1887-1975)

Chiang Kai-shek, the man who finally China to the Communists, was born in

lost

Chikou, the son of

merchant who had

a salt

the

Communists

up

their positions

March"

so effectively that they gave

and undertook the "Long

to safety in the north.

built a modest fortune. He was educated at the government military college at Paoting. Chiang spent the years from 1907 to 1911

from Japan. The Japanese invaded China in

with the efficient Japanese

along the coast. Chiang and the Nationalists

in Japan, training

military

had established

that

in the Russo-Japanese

In 1911,

reputation

forces ol revo-

He

China.

in

fought

Shanghai during the conflict that led to

in

Manchu

the end of the

ported the

ed

new

Dynasty. Chiang sup-

he joined

1918,

in

the

Kuomintang, the revolutionary government led

by Sun Yat-Sen. Chiang studied

into

States

tactics

in

large sections

one

of territory

Only the entry of the United World War II brought effective

relief and the prospect of final success. Chiang remained commander-in-chief of

the Nationalists throughout the war.

After

went

He

to

World War II ended, Chiang again war with the Chinese Communists.

lost the battle in the countryside,

where

of peasants heard more hope

in the

millions

military

threat, this

held out during the long period of Japanese

republican government lound-

and

1911,

in

1937 and overran

ascendancy.

Chiang joined the

and reform

lution

its

War.

Chiang soon faced another

messages of Mao Tse-Tung

He

(see no.

95) than in

resigned as president in 1949

and

Russia during 1923 and returned to China

Chiang's.

determined to reform the Nationalist army

fled to the island of Taiwan. Soon resuming his

along the lines of the Soviet army.

Whampoa

the

Military

Academy

He

directed

in 1924,

and

death of Sun Yat-Sen in 1925, he became commander of the northern expeditionary forces. Chiang's assignment was to subafter the

due the

major warlords

five

presidency,

Chiang became head

Chinese

United

Nations

China

1972 was

in

recognition a bitter

the Nationalists he led.

He

blow

who

carried

out a military

coup on March 20, 1926, against the Chinese Communists who had prewith

cooperated

viously

Kuomintang.

He

the

then went north

and captured Peking in 1928. In 1930, Chiang undertook herodestroy

ic

efforts

saw

as the greatest threat

the

Communists

to

what to China

he-

within. Five times

he tried to encircle them in their

strongholds

in

the

Jin

Giang

Mountains of southern China. In 1933, he assembled a 700,000-

late

man

army. Using methods learned

from

a

German

advisor,

Chiang Kai-shek

he harried

99

{left)

The

of mainland to

Chiang and

died in Taipei.

dominated northern China.

Chiang

of the

national government in exile.

no Heinz Cuderian (1888-1954)

OJ. Little

known of

is

the

years

early

of

Germany's foremost advocate of blitzkrieg warfare.

Heinz Guderian was born

Kulm,

in

Germany (present-day Chelmno, Poland). He was commissioned into a Hanoverian rifle

1908 and then transferred

battalion in

become World War to

After

a

communications

I,

the

he

commanded

war ended, Guderian became

deeply involved

in

German

military.

Convinced

vehicles

would bring about

in warfare,

Guderian

During

officer.

a radio station.

the

rebuilding of the that motorized

believed

especially

trench warfare of

changes

great

he called for changes

in

World War

tactics.

the static

that

would soon

I

be obsolete. In 1931, Guderian was given

When

motorized battalion.

command of a German

three

panzer (tank) divisions were created in 1935,

Guderian was named also

to

command

one.

found time to write a book, Achtung!

Panzer!,

during

1936 and

became chief of

all

Guderian

1937.

Heinz Guderian

He

mobile German troops

ated

from

the

Guderian was

continent.

By

time,

this

called "father of the Panzer divi-

sions."

in 1938.

In 1941,

Guderian commanded the Second

At the start of World War II, most European planners anticipated a long, drawn-

Panzerarmee (tank army)

out war. Instead, the lightning speed of the

by

German armored units stunned and Germany conquered Poland

Guderian, however, had reached his high-water

the in

Poles,

only

six

he

Russia;

isolating

intentions from Berlin.

his

^/iT^f-m" ("Smash, don't tap").

Guderian himself led an army corps into France in the spring of 1940.

German

The stunning

successes there were even greater than

he had hoped

for,

back

became anxious

in Berlin

and

his

nervous superiors that he

a

half years

before

he was

chief of the

serve

as

(July

1944-March

chat followed the

1945).

it

was evacu-

Fussen, Bavaria.

100

in

the

and shooting of many Soviet Red Army

he was never brought to

army before

melee

summarily

Although Guderian was complicit arrest

prisoners, contrary to the

destroyed the British

the

In

to

staff

replaced by Hitler.

the offensive a short distance from

to

his

breakdown of the German

Dunkirk, where the Germans might have

halt

summoned

army general

eastern front, Guderian was again

might

exceed his directives. Hitler himself called a

forces.

Guderian passed an uneventful two and

It

key motto: "Klotzern, nicht

victories

withdrawing without confirmation of

for

confirmed

thrust into

mark; Hitler replaced him in December 1941

philosophy, and he was given the task of plan-

ning the coming campaign against France.

its

and enveloping Russian

weeks. This success proved Guderian's military

also

in

immense

gained

Geneva agreements, trial.

He

died near

Erwin Rommel

n/i

(1891-1944)

Rommel

Erwin and courage

erally characterized

in

personified

chivalry

an age of warfare that was gen-

in

by

brutality.

He was

born

Heidenheim, Wurttemberg, and joined the

German

infantry as an officer cadet in 1910.

Commissioned

a

second lieutenant in 1912, he

came

Normandy on June

in the afternoon,

when

too

late;

the Allies had

ashore to

a

military instructor at the

aircraft

fire

remove Hitler from power.

he

a junior officer,

came

first

to

Still

prominence

when he was

given responsibility for Adolf

Hitler's safety

during

through Prague

in

triumphal ride

Hitler's

Rommel held this German invasion of

1938.

duty again during the

Promoted

major general on the eve of

to

II,

Rommel commanded

the 7th

Panzer Division in the invasion of France in

he was implicated

1944, he was visited als

who

at his

him

offered

poison

take

and

in the effort to

On

to Libya to

command

the

could either

remain

great

a

trial.

"

Rommel made dying

to

his choice

protect

his

two

ically

Rommel German-

North

in

Africa

fought against numer-

superior forces, dealt with his inadequate

supply

Malta

years

Rommel

lines (especially after the British as

an

air base),

used

and received conflicting

orders from Berlin. Using his personal

mag-

netism to infuse his troops with hope and drive,

he outmaneuvered and defeated the

Tobruk

British several times, finally capturing in 1942. His string of successes at

El

came

to

an end

Alamein, where he was defeated by

General Bernard Montgomery

(see no. 86)

of

England. Recalled to

given

Germany in 1943, Rommel was of all German forces from the

command

Netherlands to the Loire River. ceaselessly to fortify the

Allied invasion but against him.

When

He worked

French coast against an

knew

the tremendous odds

the Allied

D-Day

hero,

and took poifamily.

The

government pretended he had died from his woimds, and Hitler announced a day of national mourning for the fallen hero. Nazi

Italian forces there.

(1941-1943),

14,

gener-

a choice: he

1940. His brilliance as a battlefield leader was recognized by Hitler, and in 1941,

October

home by two

or he could take his chance with a "people's

son,

1939.

During

was

while in his automobile. Taken

Potsdam War Academy (1935-1938).

was sent

it

stay.

Hoping against hope, Rommel fought on month before he was wounded by Allied

to Berlin,

World War

By then

call.

come

for a

I.

Rommel was

in

Rommel He was

they were given per-

mission by Hitler's phone

Dresden Infantry School (1929-1933) and

Poland

1944,

6,

close at hand.

unable to use them, however, until four o'clock

served in France, Romania, and Italy during

World War

in

had two armored units

Erwin Rommel

invasion

101

nr

Mao

OU.

(1893-1976)

The

Tse-Tung

of the Chinese

leader

Communist

Party,

Mao

Tse-Tung won the Chinese Civil

War.

His

truly

drastic

policies

decisively

shaped China during the twentieth century.

During Mao's youth and adolescence, China had thrown off the

rule

Manchu

of the

(Ch'ing) Dynasty and created a republic.

Mao joined the Chinese Marxist He and 11 others founded the

1920.

Communist

Mao

and

Party in

Chinese

Party in 1921. For several years,

his

followers cooperated with the

Chinese Nationalists, led by General Chiang Kai-shek (see no. 92). In 1927, Chiang carried

out a sudden coup against the communists.

Mao

quickly became a military leader out of

necessity.

Mao common

For the next twenty-two years,

would focus on

rural

China and the

peasants as the bulwark of the

Communist

Party.

Mao commanded

perhaps 10,000

men

Mao

in

Mao

1928, but by the early 1930s, that figure had risen to nearly

however,

300,000.

Mao and his

followers,

were under constant attack from

on the

stayed

Sino-Japanese

sidelines

during the

War (1937-1945). He

Chiang and the Nationalists

perceived

as his true

enemy.

Chiang's Nationalist forces.

After the conclusion of

World War

Mao's response was to initiate and lead the "Long March." Commencing on October 16,

eviction ol the Japanese

from China, the com-

Mao

1934,

on

led

86,000 Chinese communists

a daring, apparently suicidal, retreat

from

Giang Mountains north through the Hunan, Kweichow, and Szechwan provinces. The communists crossed eighteen mountain the Jin

ranges

six

of them snow-covered

four rivers, and vast north.

They

also

swamps on

— twenty-

their

It is

flict.

the

Chiang and the Nationalists held on

cities,

but

Mao and

and

to Taiwan,

Peking

as

1949,

in

Mao He

fled

into

new communist

led

China through the Cold War.

signed a treaty with the Soviet

River into the Korean

however, brought national and international

Chiang

Mao marched

the leader of a

troops reached their destination in northern

Mao

Shensai province in October 1935;

dropped out along the way.

to

communists gained

nation.

1950 and sent

ers

the

control of the entire countryside.

believed that only 4,000 of the original 86,000

many othThe march,

and the

munists and Nationalists continued their con-

march

eluded Chiang's forces.

II

Forward

his

troops

War

across

Union the

in

Y;ilu

later that year.

directed the start of the "Great Leap "

(1958) and the Cultural Revolution

(1966-1969).

He

reversed an old policy in

attention to the communists, and their

1971 and welcomed President Richard Nixon

bers were soon swollen by recruits.

of the United States to China. At the time ot

made Mao Tse-Tung of Chinese communism.

journey also leader

numThe epic

the indelible

his death,

the

102

Mao

was the most revered leader

communist world.

in

nn

Georgi Zhukov

OD.

(1896-1974)

Georgi

Zhukov was born

in

village

a

Kaluga Province, southwest of Moscow.

in

He

joined the

Novgorad dragoons

1915,

in

and twice received the

at Stalingrad in

1942, and he was prominent in

the relief of Leningrad. the Soviet Union,

Made

Zhukov

a full marshal

of

led the troops that

St.

captured Berlin in April 1945, ending the war.

After learning military tactics in the Czar's

defense in 1946 but was relieved suddenly by

rose to sergeant,

Zhukov

George's Cross.

Zhukov joined

army,

the

new Red Army when down the

the Bolshevik Revolution brought

He

czar.

advanced rapidly

rising

forces,

in the

communist

squadron commander by

to

Zhukov attended the Frunze Military Academy from 1928 to 1931, commanded a 1922.

by 1934, and advanced

division of troops

commander in 1936. Zhukov managed to avoid

to

the

terrible

purges carried out by Joseph Stalin during the 1930s.

threat

He was

sent east in 1939 to

as

deputy

reinstated in

1952.

He

played an important

part in ensuring that Nikita to

power

in

premier in October 1957. leader

The

in

name a

for

World War

eastern

front

car-

the

would remain quiet War II. He became

throughout most of World

Army

chief of staff of the Soviet

was made a

full

general the

Zhukov played an were shown

in

1940 and

year.

active role in retraining

and reshaping the Soviet ciencies

same

Army

in the

after

its

Russo-Finnish

defi-

War

of 1939 and 1940. Like Stalin, Zhukov was lulled to sleep as far as the

Germans were con-

cerned; the Nazi invasion of Russia in June

1941 took him thoroughly by surprise.

As Russia fought

German

invaders,

larger roles.

for survival against the

Zhukov played

He commanded

central

and Leningrad

nized

the

reserve

increasingly

the defense of the

fronts in 1941

units

that

and orga-

stopped

the

Germans just short of Moscow in December 1941. Zhukov received the title of first deputy commissar for defense, meaning that after Premier Stalin, he was the overall commander of the Soviet war effort. Zhukov organized, Georgi Zhuki

though he did not carry out the counterattack

103

War

II),

humble peasant could

under the Soviet system.

Khalkin-Gol campaign, thereby ensuring that Russia's

greatest Russian

during the Great Patrioic

showed how fall

Kruschev came

1955, but he was ousted by the

ried out a brilliant battle strategy that cost the

Japanese sixty thousand casualties

of

Sent to an obscure post at Odessa, he

meet a

from Japan. Zhukov planned and

minister

languished in semi-retirement until he was

Russian

corps

late

Stalin.

served

(the

Zhukov rise

and

Nguyen Giap

n~7

ifo

0/.

(1912-)

Vo Nguyen Giap was born in An Xa village Quanbinh Province, Vietnam. Coming

in

from an impoverished Mandarin

he

family,

studied at a French school and earned a law

degree from Hanoi University.

He

joined the communist-nationalist group

by

led

Ho

Chi Minh around 1930 and became

its

"inner circle" members. Giap joined

one of

Ho

Chi Minh

China during World War

in

Giap then returned

II.

Vietnam and orgarevolutionary army in the northern

nized a

to

Determined

highlands.

push

to

out

the

French, he called for a massive insurrection.

The Vietnamese revolution was partially The communists held the highland

successful. areas,

but the French clung to

at least half the

country. As leader of the Vietnamese army, and later as

m

defense minister from 1954 to 1980,

Giap refined the principles of guerrilla warfare he had learned in China.

Giap directed major French

in

1950.

ground, but in

siderable

the

against

attacks

The communists gained con1951, the French

regained most of the lost areas in counterattacks.

Giap then for

him

set a

trap.

It

took three years

to lure the French into

committing the

army to an exposed region, the fortress of Dien Bien Phu. Giap directed 100,000 peasants in movements that brought

Vo Nguyen Giap

best of their

howitzers and mortars to the area. bled a massive Vietnamese

menced

the siege

on March

render of Dien Bien

He

assem-

army and com-

12, 1954.

Phu broke

The

sur-

the back of

reputation

sands of

revolution

against

the

soldier

stood

behind lost

it.

thou-

throwing themselves against

lives

overall effect

installations, the

was to lower the willingness of

many Americans By

hero of the

a

South Vietnamese and U.S.

French resistance.

The

as

Although the North Vietnamese

to continue the war.

the time the

Vietnam Wxr ended

1975, with U.S. troops in

flight,

in

much of

demo-

the direction of the war had passed to General

South Vietnam, one that

was supported by the power of the United

Van Tien Dung. Giap remained the grand old man of the Vietnam military. He had good rea-

Giap directed the North Vietnamese

son to be proud. His poorly equipped guerrilla

French, Giap soon had to confront the cratic

States.

government

in

troops during the long war,

1975.

It is

from 1963

to

unclear whether the idea for the Tet

offensive in

1968 was

initially his

own, but

his

warriors had defeated France, South Vietnam,

and the United of

104

more than

States in a protracted struggle

thirty years.

nn

Benjamin

UO.

(1912-2002)

Born Davis,

was the son of

1940, Davis became the

attended

West

at

African-American

first

U.S.

none of

graduated 35 out of a

was an

it

class

of 276

his class-

1936. His

high placement allowed him to select the vice of his choice,

He was

told,

and he chose the

Commissioned

in the infantry,

in

the

forces.

He

Davis taught

bases

later

At the time of

55-mile- (88-km-) per-

passionately for the

hour speed to save

both

limit lives

Davis was a chose

to

ignore

on

and

interstate

the

first

individual

prejudice

the

He

and

strongly objected to

believed that "we are

all

simply American."

He

he was

group of African-Americans admitted

to the U.S.

Army Air Corps and

pilot training.

Davis organized the all-black 99th

Squadron

North

Africa, Sicily,

known

as the

and

Italy.

They became

"Tuskegee Airmen."

Davis went on

Group

Fighter

Pursuit

1942 and flew missions over

in

in

black squadrons.

to

the

organize

332nd

1943, composed of four

Promoted

to

full

colonel,

Davis flew missions over Germany. Davis followed his distinguished World II

service

by commanding fighter

United the

States.

armed

the Air

51st

The

War

fields in the

desegregation

removed

his last

of

stumbling

and he surged ahead, graduating from

block,

the

forces

War

fighter

Fighter

College in

branch,

1950. As chief of

commanded the Wing in Korea

he

Interceptor

(1953-1954). Raised to brigadier general

in

1954 and to major general in 1959, Davis served for two years in Europe before returning to the

United States for

a

tour of duty in

Benjamin

Washington, D.C. (1961-1965).

105

who

insults

"African-American," since he

member of

Davis was a

highways

fuel.

remarkable

directed against him. as

served as assistant secre-

assigned to: Fort Benning, Georgia and Fort Riley, Kansas. In 1941,

his

(1971-1975) and argued

tary of transportation

being classified

pilots.

military science at the Tuskegee Institute.

endured segregation

armed

ser-

air force.

however, that African-Americans

could not serve as fighter

to 1968.

senior African-American officer in the U.S.

order. Davis in

and he

served as chief of staff ol the U.S. forces in

Military

mates roomed or ate with him, and he was never spoken to unless

African-American

retirement from the service in 1970, he was the

Point. Because he suffered

the "silent treatment" there,

first

to lieutenant general (1965),

Korea from 1965

the

to

promoted

of

University

the

Chicago before going

Academy

officer. In

rank of general.

to achieve the

Davis

mihtary

a

Jr.

Davis became the

Washington, D.C., Benjamin O.

in

Jr.

o. Davis,

C).

Davis,

Jr.

nn

Moshe Dayan

00.

(1915-1981)

One of

of the true military geniuses

twentieth

tfie

Dayan was born first

Moshe

century,

in

Daganyah A, the

Jewish collaborative settlement in

At the

Palestine (present-day Israel).

of

age

he

fourteen,

Haganah, the Jewish

joined

the

militia that oper-

ated in British-administered Palestine.

During the Palestine-Arab Revolt of 1936

Dayan

to 1939,

led special night

squadrons to protect British military

and Jewish settlements.

installations

The Haganah went underground in

1939

to

favor

after British policy

appeared

Arab control of

Palestine.

Dayan was caught by

the British and

sentenced to a five-year prison term,

but he was released in 1941.

He

then

Moshe Dayan

joined British and Free French troops

campaign

in their

Lebanon from

to liberate Syria

the control of Vichy France,

which had joined the Nazis lost his right

to

eye in this conflict; he soon took

wearing the

became

the

on the Syrian

war

Israeli

for

front.

he had

that

independence a battalion

By the end of the war

risen

command

to

new Jewish Dayan

vital

became

geographic points of the

state.

received

Britain after the war.

chief

of

military

He

training

returned to general

the

in

Israel

and

staff

in

1953.

He was supreme commander

Israeli

Defense Forces during the 1956 war

against Egypt

By

and fought

this time, the Israelis

over the Arabs in both

Dayan

new

left

the

of the

he served

Party,

(1959-1964).

as

When

to

war

in

of the Labor of agriculture

the Israeli government

1967, he was

and weaponry. Israel's

1958 and studied

made

minister of

The

Six

Day War

June 1967 vindicated

in

Dayan had worked toward for more than 30 years. The Israeli air force destroyed Arab planes on the ground; Israeli soldiers seized the Golan Heights, liberated Jerusalem, and captured the Sinai peninsula. The stuneverything

ning victory was attributed to

which

ness,

Israeli

prepared-

no small measure was due

in

to

Dayan's vigilance and forethought.

Dayan was

He

replaced as defense minister in

suffered criticism over Israel's lack of

preparedness for the

in

minister

defense.

had gained an edge skill

a seat in the Knesset,

A member

1974.

military power.

army

won

parliament.

Israel's

in the Sinai Desert.

Dayan's victory in the war confirmed position as a

he

politics before

in

of the

Jerusalem front, thereby gaining an intimate

knowledge of the

with David Ben-Gurion

organized a united coalition cabinet just prior

Dayan commanded

in 1948,

1949,

black eye patch

large,

his personal trademark.

When began

1940. Dayan

in

{right)

and

He

Yom Kippur War

in 1973.

returned to politics to serve as foreign min-

ister

from 1977

to 1979,

an exciting time dur-

ing which Israeli and Egyptian leaders laid the basis for peace

106

between

their

two countries.

Norman Schwarzkopf

nn

UU.(1934-) Norman Schwarzkopf was born

New

in Trenton,

His father was a brigadier general

Jersey.

a position to push

and had headed the investigation of the famous kidnapping

Lindbergh

Young

case.

Schwarzkopf graduated 43rd out of his

480

U.S. Military

at the

Academy

class

at

of

West

all

the

way

Baghdad and

to

remove Saddam Hussein from power. Stich a scenario

was not

to be the case. U.S.

president George Bush and head of the Joint

Chiefs of Staff Colin Powell declared themselves satisfied that the

United Nations' objec-

had been attained. The war ended with

Point and served for two years with the 101st

tives

Airborne Division.

Kuwait freed and Hussein corralled but

Schwarzkopf served

The

changed

he went to serve

War

as a task-

force advisor to a South Vietnamese airborne division in 1965. In

two tours of duty Silver Stars.

May a

His most famous incident came on

28, 1970,

mine

safety.

Schwarzkopf served

all,

Vietnam and won three

in

field

when he

chose to be landed in

and lead a group of

His devotion to his men,

his

diers to call

ural

many

of

the

Command, Schwarzkopf was

choice

to

to

the

lead

(1990-1991). After

Iraqi

Schwarzkopf returned home

a

mand Operation

oil-rich

and

led a ticker-tape parade in

He

received

Queen some 1992,

New York

a coalition

Elizabeth

II

of England. Mentioned by

as a possible candidate for president in

Schwarzkopf dismissed such

talk

al

tour for his best-selling book.

It

Doesn't Take

a Hero (1992).

sol-

U.S.

Kuwait,

com-

of allied forces

American countries, Schwarzkopf laid the groundwork for the invasion of Kuwait and the aerial

bombardment

that

month of fierce

failed

to

persuade

Hussein to withdraw, Schwarzkopf was given the green light to unleash Operation Desert

The campaign

Storm.

lasted

approximately

100 hours, from February 23 to February 27, 1991. Schwarzkopf's meticulous preparation

«8>

paid off as his coalition forces outflanked, outfought,

When

and

routed

a cease-fire

the

Iraqi

army.

was called on February 27,

Schwarzkopf had liberated Kuwait and was

as

rumors. Instead, he embarked on a promotion-

from European, Middle Eastern, and North

ejection of Iraqi troops. After a

City.

an honorary knighthood from

Desert Shield.

Welding together

He

hero.

the nat-

to Saudi Arabia to

in

addressed both houses of the U.S. Congress

war against Iraq dictator Saddam

Hussein invaded and seized

Schwarzkopf was sent

still

in Iraq.

him "Stormin Norman."

commander-in-chief

As Central

men

as well as his

high temper and self-assurance, led

power

an

as

of the Vietnam

start

his plans;

two

for

West Point

years before returning to instructor.

Berlin

in

Norman Schwarzkopf

in

107

TRIVIA QUIZ Test your knowledge and challenge your friends with the following questions.

10.

The

Who introduced the use of ricochet gunfire?

Describe that method of batde. (see no. 54)

answers are on the biographies noted. 1 1

1. What

is

the difference between Yoshimotto,

Yamoto, and

Yamamoto?

(see nos. 46, 82, 89)

.

One freedom

fighter

is

known

as the

and another is called the "George Washington of South America." Name these leaders, (see nos. 62 and 70) "father of his country"

2. Which feared warrior developed a disci-

plined system of force that used mobile horse

columns

to encircle

and entrap enemies who

were then killed using armor-piercing arrows?

12.

Whose

death on the Plains of Abraham

was commemorated

Benjamin West?

by

in a painting

(see no. 60)

(see no. 30)

13. 3. What did legend say about the

who

man

could untie the Gordian Knot?

ceeded in

this task

and how?

Who

How did "Stonewall" Jackson get his Why is ironic? (see no. 78)

nickname?

it

suc-

(see no. 6)

14.

Which famous

military leader

and

presi-

dent of the United States sold his swords and 4.

Who

removed

his half-sister

by banishing her to

become

a

convent

money during

from power

souvenirs for

in order to

stricken later years of his

the poverty-

life? (see

15. Describe the "Long March."

Who was

became a warrior and saved the French monarchy from England after she had visions of such 5.

the peasant

girl that

was

its

leader

and what

on communism?

effect did

6. Which military leader

the "Carolingian Renaissance"? (see no. 20)

commands." Which wars

1

.

is

its

organization and discipline

the only art that

is

necessary to one strike

you

been particularly well organized?

moted

first

have

Niccolo Machiavelli once declared,

"[W]ar and

was the

it

(see no. 95)

was not only a great European warrior but was also a promoter of cultural enrichment, helping to bring about

Who

Who

SUGGESTED PROJECTS

a destiny? (see no. 39)

7.

no. 76)

czar of Russia? (see no. 56)

African-American pro-

to the rank of lieutenant general? (see

.

.

who

as

Make

having a

list

of the wars and then name the military leaders involved.

no. 98) 2.

S.What was Safety

the

Committee of Public

most notorious

French Revolution?

for

during the

(see no.

65)

Some of the

military leaders in this

book have been memorialized example, a great epic

in

poem was

poems. For

written about

El Cid, Charlemagne's grief over the loss of

9. Several military leaders fought for land

Roland and his knights was described in "The Song of Roland," and Robert Bruce was

from which they were later banished. Can you name them and their homelands?

one of the

(see nos. 64, 65, 67, 79, 80, 92)

own poem about

the subject of a

108

poem by John

leaders in this

Barbour. Select

book and write your

his or her adventiues.

.

INDEX Abu Bekr 23

Augustus, of Poland 64

ad-Din, Nur 35

Austerlitz, Battle of

Candarii, Halil

Adolphus, Gustavus 56.

Ayacucho, Battle

Cannae, Canute

74 of 77

64 Adrian

I,

Pope 27

Wessex 28

Cape

IVlohammed 49 Bairen, Battle of 34

Agamemnon 73

Banks, Nathaniel 85 Bannockburn, Battle of 41 Barbarossa (Khair ed-Din)

War College

(U.S.)

105

51

Alcantara, Battle of the

Bridge of 52

Barbour, John 41 Barca, Hamilcar 14

Alcibiades 10

"Baron's War" 40

Alcuin of York 27

Batu Khan 38 Baudricourt, Robert de 46 Bayezid 43, 44

Alesia, Siege of 17

Alexander (Russia) 76 Alexander III (Scotland) 40 Alexander the Great 12, 13 Alexis, of Russia 63 Alfonso VI (Castile) 34 Alfred the Great 28, 30 Alt-Breisach, Siege of 61 Alva, Duke of 52 I

I

Bee, Bernard E. 85 Bela, of

Hungary 38

Belach Lechta, Battle of

30 Belisarius

22

Belleau Wood, Battle of 92

Bemis Heights, 66

Battle of

Amyntas III 12 Anaconda Plan

Black Prince, Edward the

Anastasius 21 Angora. Battle of 43 Annapolis 95, 97 Anne, of England 62 Anson, George 73 I

Antietam, Battle of 82

Antiochus

III

14,

15

ap Gruffudd, Llewelyn, Prince of Wales 40 Apache nation 86, 92 Appomattox Courthouse 82, 83 Aquitaine, Duke of 26 Arabela, Battle of 13

Argaum,

Battle of

75

Ariovistus 17 Aristotle

13

Arnhem,

Battle of

93

Arnold, Benedict 66, 69

arquebusiers 53 Artaxerxes 9 Artaxerxes 1111

Ashingdon, Battle of 31 Assaye, Battle of 75 Astyages 8 Atahualpa 48 Ath, Siege of 61 Atlantic Fleet 97 atomic bomb 94 Attila the Hun 20 Auerstadt, Battle of 74

of 73 Carabobo, Battle of 77 Cardinal Jules Mazarin 60 Cardinal Richelieu 60 Carloman 27 Carnot, Lazare Nicolas Marguerite 72, 74 Carolingian Renaissance 27 Cartagena Memorial 77 Catherine the Great 68 Cerro Gordo, Battles at 78 Chaeronea, Battle of 13 Chalons, Battle of 20

Big Hole, Battle of 87

Bismarck, Otto von 79

42 Blake, Robert 58

Blenheim, Battle of 62 blitzkneg 98, Bolivar,

100

Simon 77

Bolshevik Revolution 103

Bonaparte. Napoleon 68, 71 72, 74-77, 79, 90 ,

Boniface IX, Pope 44 Bonnie Prince Charlie 67 Borodino, Battle of 74

Boxer Rebellion 89 Boyaca, Battle of 77 Braddock, General 69 Brandywine, Battle of 69 Breda, Siege of 55 Breitenfeld, Battle of 57 Brian, Boru 30 Brodir, (Manx Vikings) 30 Bruce, Robert 41 Bulge, Battle of the 93, 98 Bull Run, Battles of 82, 84, 85 Bunker Hill, Battle of 66 Burgoyne, John 66 Bush, George 107 "Butcher Grant" 83 Byzantine-Persian War 22 Caesar, Julius 16, 17 Caius Marius 16, 17

Cajamarca, Battle

Charlemagne

26, 27,

of

48

Confederacy 78, 84, 85 Constantine the Great 18 Continental 69.

II

64 Chateau Thierry, Battle of 92 Chiang Kai-shek 99, 102 Chinese Civil War 102 Chippewa, Battle of 78 Chiricahua Apache 86 Christian Knights Templar 35 Churchill, John, of

Marlborough 62 Churchill, Winston 93 Churubusco, Battle of 78 (U.S.) 80,

82-85

79

Convention

Saratoga 66 73 Cornwallis, Charles 69, 70 Cortez, Hernan 50, 78 Council of Blood 52 Council of Troubles 52 Council of Warriors 86 Cowpens, Battle of 70 Crecy, Battle of 42 Cromwell, Oliver 59 of

Copenhagen,

Battle of

Crook, George 86 Culloden, Battle of 67 8, 11

D-Day

93, 101

"Damn

the torpedoes. Full

speed ahead!" 80 Daras, Battle of 22

Danus

III

13

Benjamin O. 105 Dayan. Moshe 106 de Almagro, Diego 48 de Baliol, John 40 de Cordoba, Gonzalo Fernandez 48 de Luque, Hernando 48 de Sucre, Jose 77 de Toledo, Fernando Alvarez 52 de Vivar, Rodrigo Diaz 34 Delium, Battle of 10 Davis,

Jr.,

Demosthenes 12 Dessau Bridge, Battle Devereux, Walter 56 Dien Bien Phu 104 Directory

government

(France) 72, 74

Ambrogio 55 33 Donelson, Fort 83, 84 Doolittle, James 95 Downs, Battle of the 58 Drake, Francis 54, 59 Dresden Infantry School (German) 101 Drogheda Massacre 59 Dunbar, Battle of 59 Dundee, Battle of 41 Dungeness, Battle of 58 Spinola,

Dol, Battle of

30

Clovis of the Franks 21

Cold Harbor, Battle of 83 Cold War 102 Colville Reservation 87

Command Submarine Force (U.S.) 97 Committee of Public Safety 72 Communists 99, 103, 104

of

56

di

Cleopatra 17

109

(U.S.)

Contreras, Battle of 78

Clausewitz, Karl von 76,

Clontarf, Battle of

Army

70

29

I

War

31

Cyzicus, Battle of 10

Charles (England) 59, 62 Charles (Spain) 52 Charles (England) 59 Charles IX (Sweden) 57 Charles the Hammer 26 Charles V (Spain) 50 Charles V (Rome) 51 Charles VI (Austna) 65 Charles VII (France) 46 Charles XII (Sweden) 63,

Civil

Compact of OIney Companions 12 Compiegne 90 Comyn, John 41 Conde, The 60

Cyrus the Great

82, 85 Chapultepec 78

I

Bennington, Battle of 66

80

Saint Vincent, Battle

Chancellorsville, Battle of

American Expeditionary Force 92 Amherst, Jeffrey 67 78,

Battle of

87

Aetius 20

Akraba, Battle of 23 Alaric the Goth 19

31, 33

Canyon Creek,

B-25 bombers 95 Babar, Zahiruddin

Aethelwulft, of

Pasha 47

Battle of 14, 15

II

Aethelred 28

Air

Calllnicum, Battle of 22

Roman Empire

Eastern

18, 19, 20,

22

ecclesiastical

Frederick the

Red Beard

46

trial

Prince 79

(France) 90

Frederick William

Edict of Milan 18

I

65

Fredericksburg, Battle of

Edinburgh, Battle of 41

82,

85

guerrilla warfare 28, 70,

Edington, Battle of 28

Frederiksten, Fortress of

Edmund

64 Freeman's Farm, Battle of 66 Fremont, John C. 85 French and Indian War 69 French-Dutch War 60, 61 French Revolution 71-74, 76. 77 Friedland, Battle of 74 Fronde of the Princes 60,

Ironside 31

Edward (England) 41 Edward (England) 41 Edward (England) 40, 42 Edward "Longsfianks" 40 Edward tfie Confessor 33 Edward tfie Elder 29 I

II

III

Eisenhower, Dwight D. 93,

97 El Alamein 101 El Alamein Battle El Cid 34

Frunze

Military

Galenus 18

Elizabeth (Czarina) 65, 68

Gangut, Battle

Elizabeth

II

(England) 54 (England) 107

English Channel 58 English

Civil

War

59,

62

Enlightenment 65 Eternal City 19, 28, 81

Ethelred the Unready 31 Fairfax,

Thomas 59

Falkenhayn, Erich von 88 Falkirk, Battle of 40, 41

Farragut, David 80 "father of his country"

69

"Father of the Panzer Divisions" 100

"Father Toussaint" 71

34 (Rome) 56 "fire ships" 54 First Crusade 35 Ferdinand Ferdinand

First

I

II

English-Dutch

"First of the First

Five

(Castile)

War 58

Blacks" 71

War 14 Years' Campaign 43 Punic

Flavius Stilicho 19

Flavius Valerius Aurelius

Constantinus 18 "flying columns" 38 Foch, Ferdinand 90, 91

Island of

Guy

Isocrates 12

Jerusalem 35

of

William 95, 97

Hampden, John 59

Jamaica Letter 77 James, of York 62 Janissary corps 47 Japanese-Chinese War 89 Jena, Battle of 74 jihad 35 Joan of Arc 46 Joan, of Kent 42 Joffre, Joseph 90 John the Good 42 John XII, Pope 29 Johnston, Joe 82, 84 Joseph, Chief 87

Henry

IV (Holy

Roman

Empire) 32

Hessians 66, 69 Hindenburg, Paul von 88

I

Hinmaton Yalaktit (Chief Joseph) 87 Hirsov, Battle of 68

II

Hitler,

Adolf 88, 91, 100,

101 Hobrik's

Hill,

Justinian

Battle of

70

Holy Land 35, 36 Holy Roman Emperor/

housecarls 31

Frederick

Great White Fleet 95

82-84

Great Patrioic War 103 Great Wall of China 37

Greek

fire

25

1

10

of

Justinian

I

II

77

22 25

Kaidu 38

Empire 29, 45, 56 Holy Spirit 18 "hom*onoia" 13 Hondschoote, Battle of 72 Hooker, Joseph 85 Hora, Battle of 45 Horid 45 Horns of Hattin, Battle of the 35 House of Bourbon 60

Great Convention 77

Joux, Fort 71 Junin, Battle of

Ho Chi Minh 104

30 "Glorious Revolution" 62 Godwinsson, Harold 33 Golden Hind 54 Gordian Knot 13 Gordium 13 Goyathlay 86 "Grandmother Victoria" 87

"Stonewall" 82. 85

Hawke, Edward 73 Hawkins, John 54 Henry, Fort 83, 84 Henry the Fowler 29 Henry (England) 36 Henry III (England) 40 II

of

68

Jacobite Rebellion 67

I,

Gibraltar ("Tariq's Rock")

Iwo Jima, Battle of 97

Hasdrubal 14

Hundred Years' War 46 Huns 20 Hus, Jan 45 Hussein, Saddam 107 Hussite civil war 45

(Prussia) 65,

51

Jackson. Fort 80 Jackson. Thomas

Harper's Ferry 85

Hubertsberg, Treaty

II

Rhodes

Izmail, Fortress of

Hannibal 14, 15 Haroldson, Sweyn 31

Great Northern War 63

79

48

Issus, Battle of 13 Jr.,

Franco-Spanish War 60 Frederick Barbarossa 36 Frederick, John 52 76,

Academy

Guiscard, Robert 32

Great Heathen Army 28

90, 91

Imperial Naval

Indies, Council of the

"Great Leap Forward" 102

Franco-Prussian War 88,

("They shall not pass") 91

Guthrum 28

Halsey,

of 63 Giuseppe 81 Gates, Horatio 66, 70 Gelimer 22 Geneva agreements 100 Genghis Khan (Temujin) 37, 38, 43. 49 Genghisid line 38, 43 George, Elector of Hanover 62 George (England) 62 George (England) 67 "George Washington of South America" 77 Gerberoi, Battle of 33 Germantown, Battle of 69 Geronimo 86. 92 Giap, Vo Nguyen 104 Gibbon, John 87

Grant, Ulysses S.

"lis

"Iron

Howard, Oliver 87 Howe, William 66 Hsi Hsia Empire 37. 39 Huascar 48

Focsani, Battle of 68

("I serve") 42 ne passeront pas"

"ich dien"

Duke" 75 Isaurian Dynasty 25

guillotine

Garibaldi,

24 Glen Mama, Battle

Musa 24

Inca Empire 48

70 72

Harrackh, Count von 56

Eleanor (Provence) 40

94

shall return,"

ibn Nusayr,

(Japanese) 96

Battle of

(Russia) 103 Fuenterrabia, Siege of 52

I

104

Guilford Courthouse,

Academy

Eleanor (Aquitaine) 36 Eleanor (Castile) 40

Elizabeth

71, 86,

61

93

of

"I

Greene, Nathanael 70 Gregory VII, Pope 32 Guadalcanal, Battle of 95, 96 Guderian, Heinz 100

Crown

Frederick William,

Ecole Polytechnique

II,

Greek oracle 8

36

Kanwaha.

49 of

98

Takeda 53 Johannes 56

Katsuyri,

Kepler,

Khalid ibn al-Walid. 23, 24

Khalkin-Gol campaign 103

Khanum, Saray Mulk 43 Romans" 27

"King of the

"Klotzern, nicht kleckern"

(Smash, don't tap) 100 St, John 51 Knox, Henry 69 Kolin. Battle of 65 Konlggratz. Battle of 79 Korean War 94, 102 Kosciuszko, Thaddeus 68 Kozludji, Battle of 68 Kriegsakadamie (Prussian War Academy) 76, 79 Kruschev, Nikita 103 Knights of

65

Battles of

Kasserine Pass, Battle

Khan 39

Kublai

Kunersdorf, Battle of 65

Kuomlntang 99 Kutna, Battle of 45

La Janda, Battle of 24 Lafayette, Marquis de 69, 92 Lake Trasimene, Battle 14 Lapwai, Fort 87 Lapwal Reservation 87 of Corintfi

12

Leavenworth), Fort 87 Lecfifeld, Battle of

29

Lee, Robert E. 82, 83, 84,

85 Lens, Battle of 60

Leo Leo Leo Leo Leo

Pope 20 III, Pope 27 I,

III,

IV,

ttie

Isaurian

25

Pope 28 Pope 29

Marengo, Battle of 74 Maria Theresa (Austria) 65 Marlborough, Earl of 62 Marne, Battle of the 90 Marston Moor, Battle of 59 Martel, Charles 26, 27 Masinissa 15 Maslama 25 Masurian Lakes, Battle at 88 matchlock musket 61, 62 Mater Theresa 58 Mathgamain 30 Maurice of Nassau 55 Maxentius 18 Maximian 18 Mazzini, Giuseppe 81 Mediterranean fleet 80

Mehmed

VIII,

Naarden, Battle of 52 Nagashino, Battle of 53 Najera, Battle of

Namur, Battle

16, 18

L'Ouverture, Toussaint 71

League

Marathon, Battle of 9 "March to the Sea" 84 Marcus Licinius Crassus

II

47, 51

42

Peloponnesian War Pepin

of 61

26

of Heristal

Perdiccas III 12 Pericles 10

Naseby, Battle of 59

army (China)

99, 102

Perry, Oliver H.

89

Pershing, John 90, 92, 98

NATO 93

Retain, Henri Phillipe 90,

Naval Bureau

91

of

Navigation (U S.) 97 Navigation Laws (England)

73 Nazi government 88, 91, 101, 103

Peter the Great 63-65, 68

Pharnabazus 10 Pharnaces 17 Pharsalus, Battle of 17

Augustus 35, 36 80 55 (Macedonia) 12,

Philip

Neerwinden, Battle

72 Nelson, Horatio 73, 89

Philip

Nemecky

Philip

of

Brod, Battle of

45

Philip, Fort II

II

13

New Model Army 59 New Orleans, Battle Nez Perce

Philip IV (Spain) of

80

Indians 87

60

Philippa of Hainault 42 Pickett's

Charge 82

Pierce, Franklin 78

Nicaea, Council of 18

Pope 32

Lesnaya, Battle of 63

Methven, Battle of 41

Nicholas

65 Levee en masse 72

Meuse-Argonne offensive 92, 98 Mexican War 82, 84, 85 Middle Ages 27, 34, 36 Midway, Battle of 96, 97 Miles, Nelson A. 86, 87 Milroy, Robert 85

Nieuport, Battle of 55

"Pillars of

Nijmegen, Siege Nika Revolt 22

Pippin the Short 27

Leutfien, Battle of

Leyte Gulf, Battle of 95, 97 Lincoln,

Abraham

82,

83

"Lion of the North" 57 Lodi, Ibrahim

49

Lodz, Battle of 88

"Long March," The 99, 102 Louis de Bourbon, the Great Conde 60, 61 (Hungary) 51 Louis Louis IX (France) 40 Louis of Nassau 52 Louis the Pious 27

Miltiades 9

Louis

79 Monck, George 58 Monmouth, Battle at 69 Mons, Battle of 52, 61 Montcalm, Marquis de 67 Montezuma 50 Montgomery, Bernard Law

II

II

XIII

Louis XIV 60, 61, 62 Louis XVI (France) 72

Louisbourg, Fortress of 67

Lucius Cornelius Sulla 16 Lucius Scipio 15 Ludendorff, Erich von 88

Lundy's Lane, Battle of 78 Lutzen, Battle of 56

Lysander 10

Milvian Bridge, Battle of 18

Mithridates VI 16, 17

Mohacs,

Battle of 51

Molino del Reyo, Battle of

78

Nimitz, Chester

97

48

Abraham 67 Battle of 45

Plains of

Nixon, Richard M. 102

PIzen,

Nobunaga, Oda 53 noche triste (night of sadness) 50 Norman Conquest 33

Poitiers, Battle of 26,

Polk,

42

James 78

Poltava, Battle of 64

Northampton, Treaty of 41 Novgorad dragoons 103

Pompadour, Madame de 65 Pompeius Strabo 16

Nystad, Treaty of 63

Pompey

the Great 16, 17

Maximus 17 Potsdam War Academy (German) 101 Pontifex

Octavian 17

Ogedi Khan 38 Okinawa, Battle Olaf

II

of 95,

97

Powell, Colin 107

Praetorian Guard 18

31

Oldenbarnevelt, Johan 55

Prenzlau, Battle of 76

On

Preston, Battle of 59

Siege and

Fortification

Prince of Wales, Edward

61

Operation Downfall 94

Prusias of Bithynia 14

Ordonez, Garcia 34 Organizer of Victory 72 Orleans, Siege of 46 Otto the Great 29, 30 Oudenaarde, Battle of 62

Prussian-Danish

War 79

Ptolemy

17

84

Maille-Breze,

Muhlberg, Battle of 52

Pacific Sea, Battle of

Mademoiselle de 60 Malesov, Battle of 45 Mangu Khan 39 Manuel 44 Mao Tse-Tung (Zedong) 99, 102

Murad 44 Murad 47 Murchad 30 I

Palestine-Arab Revolt 106

II

panzer/Panzerarmee 100,

Musailima

Patay, Battle of

26

("false prophet")

23 musketeers 57, 60

97

101

46

Patton George S. 93. 98

Paul

111

I

68

Princeton, Battle of 69

Protestant Reformation 45

Storm 107

Moussais-la-Bataille, Battle of

I

40, 42

Maginot Line 91 "Magnus" 16

II

William 67

Pizarro, Francisco

Morristown, Battle of 69

Mount Defiance 66 Mount Hiei 53 Mount Vernon 69

30

Pitt,

the 73, 74

Hercules" 24

Operation Desert Shield/

MacArthur, Douglas 95, 97 II

55

Morgan, Daniel 70 Morgan, Fort 80 Moultrie, Fort

Magdeburg Cathedral 29

Nile, Battle of

of

pikemen 57

On War 76

Maastricht 61

Mael Sechnaill

II,

Moltke, Helmuth von 76,

93, 101

10, 11

"People's Trial" 101

Narva, Battle of 63 Nationalist

94-97

Pearl Harbor 89,

XIII 16,

Publius Cornelius Scipio

14 Pugachev, Emeleyan 68 Pyramids, Battle of the 74 Pyrenees, Treaty of the 60 Rabi 45 "Race to the Sea" 90 Ramillies, Battle of 62 "Redshirts" 81 regicide ("king

killer")

72

,

Renaissance 37

Second Punic War

Resistance movement

Selim

Revolutionary 66, 69, 70, "rich

War

(U.S.)

80

as Croesus" 8

Richard the Lion-Hearted 35,

36

Guards

Life

Rodney, George 73 Roger the Great 32 Roman-Syrian War 14, 15

Omar 49 Sherman, William Tec*mseh 84 Shields, Thomas 85 Shiloh, Battle of 83 Sichelgaita 32 Siegfried Line 90 Sigismund 44, 45 Sill, Fort 86

Rommel, Erwin

"singeing the king of

the Bruce 41

Roderick, of Spain 24

93, 98,

Spain's beard

101

Rooke, George 73 Roosevelt, Theodore 92 Rossbach, Battle of 65 "Roundhead" cavalry 59 Royal Military Academy (British) 93 "Royalist" cavalry 59 "Rump" Parliament 59 Russo-Finnish War 103 Russo-Japanese War 89, 92, 96, 99 Russo-Turkish War 68 Rymnik, Battle of 68

Sadowa,

Battle of

88

Saint Boniface, Apostle of the

Germans 26

Saint Gregory the Great

28 Saladin 35, 36

Salamanca, Battle Salarian Gate 19 Samarkand, Siege 43, 49

of

75

of 37,

San Carlos Reservation 86 Santa Anna 78

Sino- Japanese

1

04

Six

War 15 War 56,

57,

Ticinus River, Battle of 15

Ticonderoga, Fort 66, 69 Tissaphernes 10

Tobruk 93, 101 Togo, Heihachiro 89 Tolbiac, Battle of 21

Toulon, Third Battle of 72

Toulouse, Battle of 75

Dominique 71

smashers 73 "Social Wars" 16

tribute

Socrates 10 Sophia, of Hanover 65 Sorghagtani Beki 39 South Pacific Force 95

Red Army

100, 103

Spanish-American War 92 Spanish Armada 54 Spanish Reconquista 34 Spartacus 16 Spotsylvania Court House, Battle of 83 Stalin, Joseph 103 Stamford Bridge, Battle of 33 Stanton, Charles E. 92 Stone of Scone 40 Stonewall Brigade 85 Stormin' Norman 107 Strachor, Battle of 45 Strasbourg, Fortress of 61

"Savior of Protestantism"

Sulcot, Battle of

United Nations 94, 97, 99,

107

I,

fVlinor

Sea Beggars 52 Second Civil War (England) 59

Tamerlane 44, 49 Tannenberg, Battle

Task

Western Roman Empire 18. 19, 20 Wexford Massacre 59

Whampoa

Military

Academy

(China) 99

Wilderness, Battle of 83 II,

II

(Germany) 88 (Prussia) 79

Orange 62

"Veni, Vidi, Vici" 17

Wittekind 27

Vercingetorix 17

Wolfe.

Vernon, Edward 69

Worcester, Battle of 59

Versailles, Treaty of 88, 90 Vichy France 91, 106

World War

Vicksburg, Battle of 80.

World War 68, 91, 93-95. 97-105

84

83, Victor

Villa,

92,

85,

Emmanuel

II

III

of

Normandy 32 Wilton. Battle of

28

James 67 I

88, 89-95,

97, 98, 100, 101 II

81

Francisco "Pancho"

98 98

Pnnce Walachia 47

God" 23

82

Pacific

Forces 95

William the Silent 52, 55

Vitoria, Battle of

Scott, Winfield 78, 80,

85,

Vauban, Sebastien le Prestre de 61, 72, 76

Suvorov, Aleksandr 68

Scipio Africanus

Welsh Wars 40 Wenceslas IV 45 West. Benjamin 67 West Point 82, 83, 84,

William the Conqueror of

Scipio 14, 15

of

of

William

Magnificent 51

"Sword

Duke

Wellington 74, 75, 78

Xenophon Xerxes

I

11

9

Vikings 27. 30

30

the

15 15

Wellesley. Arthur,

34 monarchy 46 Van Tien Dung 104

Virginia Military Institute

IVlajor

again" 70

Welles, Gideon 80

Valois

Sun Yat-Sen 99 Sung Empire 39

Scipio Africanus

get beat, rise

fight

Valencia. Siege of

Johann von 56 Schwarzkopf, Norman 107 Science of Victory 68 Schiller,

fight,

and

Wilhelm Wilhelm

Victoria, of

Subotai 37, 38

Suleiman

23

of

"We

White Bird Canyon. Battle of 87

England 75, 87 Vietnam War 104, 107

63

streltsy

payment 20, 34, 47 Tromp, Maarten 55, 58 Tshushima Straits, Battle of 89, 96 Tunis, Siege of 52 Uhud, Battle

of the League of Augsburg 61 Washington, George 69, 70 Waterloo, Battle of 74-76 Wattignies, Battle of 72

Western

Travendal, Treaty of 64

socket bayonet 61

of the Austrian

92, 94, 97, 98, 105, 107

Toussaint, Pierre

slave revolution 71

Soviet

9

three-pounder cannon 57

Day War 106

of Spanish Succession 61

War of

60, 61

War 102

War

Succession 65

Thirty Years'

54

"

58

War

Theodosius III 25 Thermopylae, Battle Third Crusade 36 Third Punic

Sioux nation 92

Santissima Trinidad 73 Saunders, Charles 67

57

Tet offensive

Themistocles 9 Theodoric 20, 21

Shaikh,

I,

Wensel Eusebius von 56 is hell" 84 War of 1812 78, 80 "war

Seven Days, Battle of 82 Seven Weeks' War 79 Seven Years' War 65, 67, Shaibani Khan 49

Rocroi, Battle of 60

Demeter 19

Textel, First Battle of

Robert de Bruce VII 41 Robert (Normandy) 31

33

of

Seneffe, Battle of 60

68

I

Temple

Teutonic Knights 45, 88

ricochet gunfire 61

Robert

15

Tenochtitlan 50

sem*novskii 68

(France) 91 Restoration 59

14,

51

I

Vlad

III,

75

of

45

Tariq ibn Ziyad 24,

Wallace, Sir William 40, 41

Tarleton,

Wallenstein, Albrecht

112

Yesugei 37 Yom Kippur War 106 Yoshimoto, Imagawa 53

of

Vouille, Battle of 21

34 Banastre 70

Yamamoto. Isoruku 96 Yamoto 89

Zama, Battle of 14 Zhukov, Georgi 103 Zlska, Jan 45 Zutphen. Siege of 52

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